Learn More
Accumulating evidence indicates that an animal's response to a drug can be profoundly affected by early environmental influences. The brain opioid and dopamine systems may play a critical role in these effects, since various types of stress and drugs of abuse promote alterations in these brain systems. To study this further, we investigated long-term(More)
The motivation to drink alcohol and the eventual risk of becoming addicted are in part genetically determined. Because opioid peptides are considered central to motivated behaviors, we have analyzed opioid peptides in relevant areas of the brain of two outbred lines of rats: the alcohol-preferring [Alko Alcohol (AA)] line who voluntarily drink alcohol and(More)
Recently, we have shown that rats repeatedly treated with ethanol and/or cocaine have decreased kappa-opioid receptor mRNA levels in the mesolimbic system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of repeated ethanol administration on opioid peptide concentrations in brain tissue of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dynorphin(More)
Recently the existence of a neurotensin striatonigral pathway strongly up-regulated by methamphetamine has been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay, the modulation of this pathway by dopamine antagonists. Rats were injected either with methamphetamine alone or together with the(More)
Environmental manipulations early in life may induce persistent alterations in adult behaviour and physiology. The underlying neural mechanisms of these responses are not yet clear. We have previously reported long-term changes in brain opioid peptide levels in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after short periods (15 min, known as neonatal handling) of(More)
Several putative neurotransmitters and metabolites were monitored simultaneously in the extracellular space of neostriatum, substantia nigra, and cortex and in subcutaneous tissue of the rat by in vivo microdialysis. Glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) were at submicromolar and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was at nanomolar concentrations in all brain(More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to study the effect of intracerebral administration of dopamine agonists on dynorphin B release in the striatum and substantia nigra of rats. The release of dopamine and GABA was also investigated. Administration of the dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 (10-100 microM) into the striatum increased extracellular dynorphin B and GABA(More)
The vulnerability to develop alcoholism is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these factors are not fully understood but individual divergence in the endogenous opioid peptide system may contribute. We have previously reported that early-life experiences can affect endogenous opioids and also adult(More)
Opioid peptides were analysed in tissue extracts of various brain structures and the pituitary gland from rats sacrificed by microwave irradiation, and compared with peptide levels in tissue extracts from decapitated rats. Dynorphin A, dynorphin B and Leu-enkephalinArg6, derived from prodynorphin, and Met-enkephalinArg6Phe7 from proenkephalin, were(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of repeated maternal separation (MS; 4 hr per day) during postnatal Days 1 to 15 on emotionality and voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female Wistar rat offspring relative to controls exposed to a brief (5-min) daily handling procedure. Brain immunoreactive opioid peptide levels and plasma levels(More)