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OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and the progression of diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective, follow-up study over one year was conducted in a sequential sample of 34 smokers, 35 nonsmokers, and 24 ex-smokers with type I diabetes, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. Progression of renal(More)
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To investigate (1) the prevalence of physical restraints and psychoactive medication, (2) newly administered physical restraints, frequency of application of the devices and frequency of psychoactive medication on demand during 12-month follow-up and (3) characteristics associated with restraint use in nursing homes. BACKGROUND High(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency and possible risk indicators of severe hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic patients with impaired kidney function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Retrospective follow-up examination of case subjects and control subjects with mean follow-up periods of 2.9 and 1.3 yr, respectively. The setting was the diabetes(More)
The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) in a prospective population based study of adult Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. A representative sample of 684 patients (41% women, mean +/- SD age 36 +/- 11, diabetes duration 18 +/- 11 years), living in the district of Northrhine (9.5 million(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess predictors of hip-protector use in nursing home residents under usual-care conditions and after intervention consisting of structured education of nurses and nursing home residents and provision of free hip protectors. DESIGN Nested cohort analyses within a cluster randomized, controlled trial with 18 months follow-up. SETTING(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the prognosis of persons with type 1 diabetes in relation to the degree of nephropathy at initiation of intensified insulin therapy. DESIGN Ten years follow-up of a cohort of 3674 patients who had participated in a 5-day group treatment and teaching programme for intensification of insulin therapy between September 1978 and December(More)
A follow-up study of 116 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was conducted after 4.5 +/- 0.2 years. The average HbA1c-value of these patients decreased by 1% to 6.7 +/- 0.1% during this observation period. Typical side effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion such as skin inflammation(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of an intervention programme designed to increase use of hip protectors in elderly people in nursing homes. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial with 18 months of follow up. SETTING Nursing homes in Hamburg (25 clusters in intervention group; 24 in control group). PARTICIPANTS Residents with a high risk of falling(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate a diabetes-specific quality-of-life scale and to assess its psychometric properties in a large sample of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To assess the quality of diabetes care in a population-based study, a representative sample of 684 patients with type 1 diabetes was examined. A total of 657 patients (42%(More)
The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between cigarette smoking and progression of retinopathy and nephropathy, respectively, in a prospective multicentre study including 636 people with Type 1 diabetes: 81% of the original cohort of consecutively referred patients, aged 15 to 40 years and free of severe late diabetic(More)