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Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, often disabling, disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 1 in 1,000 people in most western countries. The inflammatory lesions typical of multiple sclerosis show autoimmune features and depend partly on genetic factors. Of these genetic factors, only the HLA gene complex has been repeatedly confirmed to be(More)
Age-dependent associations between type 1 diabetes risk genes HLA, INS VNTR, and CTLA-4 and autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADAs), ICA512/IA-2, insulin, and islet cells were determined by logistic regression analysis in 971 incident patients with type 1 diabetes and 702 control subjects aged 0-34 years. GADAs were associated with HLA-DQ2 in young but not in older(More)
Atopic dermatitis is a hereditary, pruritic, inflammatory and chronic skin disease that typically presents in early childhood and may continue or recur later. The etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that it is a multifactorial disorder caused by the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors, even(More)
The association between HLA-DR and -DQ and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined high-incidence area was analyzed in a total of 58 population-based patients, representing 77% of IDDM patients with age at onset below 16 years, and in 92 unrelated parents in control families without IDDM. HLA haplotypes were confirmed by analyzing(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is linked to HLA factors on human chromosome 6 and strongly associated with the presence of autoantibodies against the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform GAD65. These autoantibodies, GAD65Ab are detected both before and at the time of clinical diagnosis. Molecular sequencing of HLA alleles and PCR-based genotyping(More)
HLA-associated relative risks of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were analysed in population-based Swedish patients and controls aged 0-34 years. The age dependence of HLA-associated relative risks was assessed by likelihood ratio tests of regression parameters in separate logistic regression models for each HLA category. The analyses(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the genital development, whose complex etiology remains elusive. Defects of the androgen metabolism and activity have been found in a subset of boys with hypospadias. Moreover, the balance between androgens and estrogens seems to be important to the proper male genital development. Activating(More)
We studied the risk for diabetes of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) and islet cell (ICA) autoantibodies in non-diabetic pregnant mothers and their children. Pregnancy and cord blood sera were collected in 1970-87 from about 35,000 mothers who delivered a child in the city of Malmö, Sweden. A total of 42 mothers were identified in 1988 who, 1-18 years(More)
Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control(More)