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Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, often disabling, disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 1 in 1,000 people in most western countries. The inflammatory lesions typical of multiple sclerosis show autoimmune features and depend partly on genetic factors. Of these genetic factors, only the HLA gene complex has been repeatedly confirmed to be(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) displays a month-of-birth effect, with an excess of individuals being born in the spring and a deficit in the winter. This effect was shown to be more pronounced in familial cases of MS. In the present study, we investigated whether this month-of-birth association has any relation to the principal MS susceptibility gene,(More)
BACKGROUND The recently described interaction between smoking, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*15 and absence of HLA-A*02 with regard to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk shows that the risk conveyed by smoking differs depending on genetic background. We aimed to investigate whether a similar interaction exists between passive smoking and HLA genotype. (More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
BACKGROUND   Both insufficient exposure to sunlight and vitamin D deficiency have been associated with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis (MS). An interaction between human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1*15 and vitamin D in MS was recently proposed. We investigated the association between previous exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), vitamin D status(More)
The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian) MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for genetic differences in MS relating to OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and(More)
A significant proportion of patients with multiple sclerosis who receive interferon beta (IFNβ) therapy develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that reduce drug efficacy. To investigate if HLA class I and II alleles are associated with development of NAbs against IFNβ we analyzed whether NAb status and development of NAb titers high enough to be biologically(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status(More)