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Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, often disabling, disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 1 in 1,000 people in most western countries. The inflammatory lesions typical of multiple sclerosis show autoimmune features and depend partly on genetic factors. Of these genetic factors, only the HLA gene complex has been repeatedly confirmed to be(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Age-dependent associations between type 1 diabetes risk genes HLA, INS VNTR, and CTLA-4 and autoantibodies to GAD65 (GADAs), ICA512/IA-2, insulin, and islet cells were determined by logistic regression analysis in 971 incident patients with type 1 diabetes and 702 control subjects aged 0-34 years. GADAs were associated with HLA-DQ2 in young but not in older(More)
Both genetic and environmental factors display low or modest associations with multiple sclerosis. Hypothetically, gene-environment interactions may exert much stronger effects. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between genetic risk factors and smoking in relation to risk of developing multiple sclerosis. A population-based case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) displays a month-of-birth effect, with an excess of individuals being born in the spring and a deficit in the winter. This effect was shown to be more pronounced in familial cases of MS. In the present study, we investigated whether this month-of-birth association has any relation to the principal MS susceptibility gene,(More)
Atopic dermatitis is a hereditary, pruritic, inflammatory and chronic skin disease that typically presents in early childhood and may continue or recur later. The etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that it is a multifactorial disorder caused by the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors, even(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system, causing inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. A limited number of genetic risk factors for MS have been identified, but the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown. For the identification of genes regulating neuroinflammation we used a rat model of MS, myelin(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypospadias is a common inborn error of the genital development, whose complex etiology remains elusive. Defects of the androgen metabolism and activity have been found in a subset of boys with hypospadias. Moreover, the balance between androgens and estrogens seems to be important to the proper male genital development. Activating(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)
Multiple sclerosis, MS (OMIM No. 126200), is a complex inflammatory disease that is characterized by lesions in the central nervous system. Both genes and other environmental factors influence disease susceptibility. One of the environmental factors that has been implicated in MS and autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, is vitamin D deficiency, in(More)