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Field-collected mosquitoes of the two main malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus, were screened for their midgut bacterial contents. The midgut from each blood-fed mosquito was screened with two different detection pathways, one culture independent and one culture dependent. Bacterial species determination was(More)
Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they(More)
In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae(More)
The taxonomic position, growth characteristics and antibiotic resistance properties of a slightly yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated R26(T), isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, were studied. The isolate produced rod-shaped cells, which stained Gram-negative. The bacterium had two growth optima at 30-31 °C and 37 °C. Strain(More)
Hemolin, an insect immunoglobulin superfamily member, is a lipopolysaccharide-binding immune protein induced during bacterial infection. The 3.1 angstrom crystal structure reveals a bound phosphate and patches of positive charge, which may represent the lipopolysaccharide binding site, and a new and unexpected arrangement of four immunoglobulin-like domains(More)
Insects of the order Diptera are vectors for parasitic diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and leishmania. In the search for genes encoding proteins involved in the antiparasitic response, we have used the protozoan parasite Octosporea muscaedomesticae for oral infections of adult Drosophila melanogaster. To identify parasite-specific response(More)
In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA genes. Eight of the 10(More)
Insects have an efficient defense system against infections. Their antibacterial immune proteins have been well characterized. However, the molecular mechanisms by which insects recognize foreignness are not yet known. Data are presented showing that hemolin (previously named P4), a bacteria-inducible hemolymph protein of the giant silk moth Hyalophora(More)
The symbiotic relationship between Asaia, an α-proteobacterium belonging to the family Acetobacteriaceae, and mosquitoes has been studied mainly in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Thus, we have investigated the nature of the association between Asaia and the major Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. We have isolated Asaia from(More)
Fat body from previously immunized diapausing pupae of the silkmoth,Hyalophora cecropia (Saturniidae), incubated in vitro, released antibacterial activity into the medium and incorporated3H-leucine into the immunity proteins P1–P9. The release of antibacterial activity from fat body was also induced to some extent by injection of Ringer solution and, after(More)