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We determined the abilities of 10 technologies to detect and quantify a common drug-resistant mutant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (lysine to asparagine at codon 103 of the reverse transcriptase) using a blinded test panel containing mutant-wild-type mixtures ranging from 0.01% to 100% mutant. Two technologies, allele-specific reverse transcriptase(More)
Avian polyomavirus, described originally as budgerigar fledgling disease virus, has been associated with devastating contagious disease outbreaks in budgerigar aviaries. At present, this virus affects a wide range of psittacine and non-psittacine birds worldwide, and the serum neutralisation test is used for the serodiagnosis of avian polyomavirus(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop an assay for the early detection and quantification of minor human immunodeficiency virus-1 populations bearing multiple drug resistance (MDR) mutations. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is based on ligation of probe and detector oligonucleotides annealed to a polymerase chain reaction amplicon strand(More)
Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2-5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral (ARV) drugs used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention(More)
To evaluate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and selection of drug-resistant viruses during seemingly effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), multiple HIV-1 env and pol sequences were analyzed and viral DNA levels were quantified from nucleoside analog-experienced children prior to and during a median of 5.1 (range,(More)
The detection of virus is used to diagnose human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants due to the persistence of maternal antibodies for a year or more. An HIV-1 DNA PCR assay with simple specimen collection and processing was developed and evaluated. Whole blood was collected on filter paper that lysed cells and bound the DNA,(More)
Acquisition of nevirapine (NVP)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by breast-feeding infants after receipt of single-dose NVP to prevent mother-to-child transmission is not well defined. A prospective observational study of 307 infants evaluated the rate of breast milk transmission of NVP-resistant HIV and the concentrations of mutants(More)
Drug-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recede below the limit of detection of most assays applied to plasma when selective pressure is altered due to changes in antiretroviral treatment (ART). Viral variants with different mutations are selected by the new ART when replication is not suppressed or wild-type variants with(More)
A sensitive, specific, and high-throughput oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) for the detection of genotypic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance to Food and Drug Administration-approved protease inhibitors was developed and evaluated. This ligation-based assay uses differentially modified oligonucleotides specific for wild-type or(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the feasibility of the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA), a specific, sensitive, and economical ligase-based point mutation assay designed to detect HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations at 12 codons of HIV-1 subtype B pol, for potential use in resource-poor settings. METHODS Specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals collected by 7(More)