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Using the International Project on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database containing information on over 15,000 control (noncancer) subjects, the allele and genotype frequencies for many of the more commonly studied metabolic genes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2, GSTP, and EPHX) in the human population were(More)
To evaluate whether alterations in the multidrug-resistance (MDR)-1 gene correlate with intestinal MDR-1 expression and uptake of orally administered P-glycoprotein (PGP) substrates, we analyzed the MDR-1 sequence in 21 volunteers whose PGP expression and function in the duodenum had been determined by Western blots and quantitative immunohistology (n = 21)(More)
BACKGROUND P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR1, confers multidrug resistance against antineoplastic agents but also plays an important role in the bioavailability of common drugs in medical treatment. Various polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene were recently identified. A silent mutation in exon 26 (C3435T) was correlated with intestinal P-glycoprotein(More)
The polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2; EC 2.3.1.5) is supposed to be a susceptibility factor for several drug side effects and certain malignancies. A group of 844 unrelated German subjects was genotyped for their acetylation type, and 563 of them were also phenotyped. Seven mutations of the NAT2 gene were evaluated by allele-specific PCR(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials have indicated that the combined beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol improves the survival rate in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. The objective of our study was the identification and quantification of factors that modulate steady-state serum concentrations of carvedilol and its enantiomers and(More)
Previous studies have yielded conflicting results as to the putative role of the functional polymorphism of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in the etiology of anxiety-related traits and depressive disorders. Recently, a significant gene-environment interaction was found between life stressors, the short allele of the SLC6A4(More)
Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts are involved in the induction of p53 mutations and probably in the causation of human lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking. The ratio between CYP1A1 and GST enzyme activities is a critical determinant of the target dose of carcinogenic BPDE and other DNA-reactive PAH metabolites. In this review, we(More)
Polymorphisms for genes encoding the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) might contribute to the variability in individual susceptibility to lung cancer. The role of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 in lung carcinogenesis might be more important at low levels of exposure to carcinogens. Non-smokers represent a population(More)
Isoniazid is metabolized by the genetically polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2). A greater number of high-activity alleles are related to increased acetylation capacity and in some reports to low efficacy and toxicity of isoniazid. The objective of this study was to assess individual isoniazid exposure based on NAT2 genotype to predict a(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine is known to be an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 after binding to the nuclear pregnane X receptor. To evaluate whether it also regulates the multidrug transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein MRP2 in humans, duodenal expression of multidrug resistance gene(More)