Ingo Vernaleken

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Typical antipsychotic drugs qualify for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) primarily for the following reasons: control of compliance and avoidance of extrapyramidal side effects by keeping chronic exposure to minimal effective blood levels. For the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, drug safety is another reason to use TDM. With regard to the new(More)
Dopamine neurotransmission influences those cognitive processes, which are generally regarded as prefrontal cortical functions. In previous positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies, net blood-brain clearance of [18F]-fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) correlated with impaired cognitive performance in patients with Parkinson's disease or schizophrenia. We hypothesized(More)
Antipsychotics are the most common cause of pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia. Although this adverse effect was the subject of numerous observations, the mechanisms and promotive factors were not completely investigated yet. Increased awareness of clinical consequences of hyperprolactinemia implicates the necessity for further examinations. The(More)
Conventional methods for the graphical analysis of 6-[(18)F]fluorodopa (FDOPA)/positron emission tomography (PET) recordings (K(in)(app)) may be prone to negative bias because of oversubtraction of the precursor pool in the region of interest, and because of diffusion of decarboxylated FDOPA metabolites from the brain. These effects may reduce the(More)
5-(2'-[18F]Fluoroethyl)flumazenil ([18F]FEF) is a fluorine-18 labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for central benzodiazepine receptors. Compared with the established [11C]flumazenil, it has the advantage of the longer half-life of the fluorine-18 label. After optimisation of its synthesis and determination of its in vitro receptor affinities,(More)
Conventional indices of the utilization of FDOPA in living human brain have not consistently revealed important declines in dopamine function with normal aging. However, most methods of kinetic analysis have assumed irreversible trapping of decarboxylated FDOPA metabolites in brain, an assumption that is violated even in PET recordings of short duration.(More)
To elucidate the "atypicality" of ziprasidone, its striatal and extrastriatal D2/D3-receptor binding was characterized in patients with schizophrenia under steady-state conditions. These data were compared with striatal receptor occupancy values after single-dose ziprasidone ingestion in healthy controls. [F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET)(More)
OBJECTIVE Aripiprazole at clinically effective doses occupies some 90% of striatal dopamine 2 and 3 (D(2)/D(3)) receptors. In order to further characterize its extrastriatal and time-dependent binding characteristics, the authors conducted positron emission tomography (PET) studies with the D(2)/D(3) antagonist [(18)F]fallypride at varying time points after(More)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of psychotropic drugs is strongly depending on the validity of recommended therapeutic plasma concentration reference ranges. Rational pharmacotherapy is based on the assumption that plasma concentrations are directly related to target occupancy by the respective drug. Here we show that positron emission tomography (PET) of(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) studies reveal that clozapine at clinically used doses occupies less than 60% of D2/D3 dopamine receptors in human striatum. Here, the occupancy of D2/D3 dopamine receptors by clozapine in patients with schizophrenia was determined to test the hypothesis that clozapine binds preferentially to extrastriatal dopamine(More)