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Membrane proteins depend on complex translocation machineries for insertion into target membranes. Although it has long been known that an abundance of nonpolar residues in transmembrane helices is the principal criterion for membrane insertion, the specific sequence-coding for transmembrane helices has not been identified. By challenging the endoplasmic(More)
By analogy to mammals, odorant receptors (ORs) in insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, have long been thought to belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. However, recent work has cast doubt on this assumption and has tentatively suggested an inverted topology compared to the canonical N(out) - C(in) 7 transmembrane (TM) GPCR(More)
Barley Mlo defines the founder of a novel class of plant integral membrane proteins. Lack of the wild type protein leads to broad spectrum disease resistance against the pathogenic powdery mildew fungus and deregulated leaf cell death. Scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis and Mlo-Lep fusion proteins demonstrated that Mlo is membrane-anchored by 7(More)
Signal peptides (SPs) target proteins to the secretory pathway and are cleaved from the nascent chain once the translocase in the ER has been engaged. Signal-anchor (SA) sequences also interact transiently with the ER translocase, but are not cleaved and move laterally out of the translocase to become permanent membrane anchors. One obvious difference(More)
As proteins are integrated into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, some hydrophilic polypeptide segments are transported through the translocation channel, others remain in the cytosol, and hydrophobic transmembrane sequences are released into the lipid phase. We have addressed the molecular mechanism by which these events occur. We demonstrate that(More)
alpha-Helix formation in globular proteins has been studied both theoretically and experimentally for decades, while a lack of both high-resolution structures and suitable experimental techniques has hampered the study of helices in membrane proteins. We have developed a new experimental approach, glycosylation mapping, where the active site of the(More)
BACKGROUND In eukaryotic cells, proteins are translocated across the ER membrane through a continuous ribosome-translocon channel. It is unclear to what extent proteins can fold already within the ribosome-translocon channel, and previous studies suggest that only a limited degree of folding (such as the formation of isolated alpha-helices) may be possible(More)
In eukaryotic cells, polypeptides are N glycosylated after passing through the membrane of the ER into the ER lumen. This modification is effected cotranslationally by the multimeric oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) enzyme. Here, we report the first cross-linking of an OST subunit to a nascent chain that is undergoing translocation through, or integration(More)
The diphtheria toxin translocation (T) domain inserts into the endosomal membrane in response to the endosomal acidification and enables the delivery of the catalytic domain into the cell. The insertion pathway consists of a series of conformational changes that occur in solution and in the membrane and leads to the conversion of a water-soluble state into(More)
We have studied the effects of single charged residues on the position of a model transmembrane helix in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane using the glycosylation mapping technique. Asp and Glu residues cause a re-positioning of the C-terminal end of the transmembrane helix when placed in the one to two C-terminal turns but not when placed more centrally.(More)