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Lack of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) functional activity predisposes children to human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. In this study, we have investigated whether there is any link between TLR3 and adult HSV-2 infection by studying genetic variations in TLR3. The frequency of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR3 gene in 239 patients(More)
The expression of MHC class I, MHC class II and the chemokines IP-10, MIP-1alpha, RANTES, fractalkine and I-TAC has been analyzed after intra-vaginal treatment with three synthetic toll-like receptors (TLR) agonists-double-stranded RNA (poly I:C), imiquimod and CpG-rich oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN). These compounds act mainly through TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9,(More)
The capacity of tonsillar and nasal mucosal lymphoid tissues to serve as induction sites of local and/or distant B-cell responses in humans has been examined. The frequencies of vaccine-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in cell suspensions from palatine tonsils (PT) and adenoids were determined after local (intra-tonsillar [i.t.]) and regional(More)
We have examined secretory antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to oral cholera vaccine in the human gastrointestinal mucosa. Freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes and intestinal lymphocytes obtained by enzymatic dispersion of duodenal biopsies were assayed for numbers of total and vaccine specific immunoglobulin-secreting cells by(More)
Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is an efficient mucosal carrier molecule for the generation of mucosal antibody responses and/or induction of systemic T-cell tolerance to linked antigens. CTB binds with high affinity to GM1 ganglioside cell surface receptors. In this study, we evaluated how conjugation of a peptide or protein antigen to CTB by chemical(More)
B cell gut-homing is mainly mediated by α4β7, CCR9 and CCR10. We here studied the expression of these receptors on B cells from cord blood and from peripheral blood at 1, 4, 18 and 36 months of age in a prospective cohort of Swedish infants. The proportion of all B cells expressing α4β7 as well as the fraction of CCR10+ B cells expressing α4β7 was highest(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a strong mucosal adjuvant for codelivered antigens, whereas its nontoxic B subunit (CTB) is an efficient mucosal carrier molecule for the generation of immune responses to linked antigens. We investigated the effects of CT and CTB on the immunogenicity of in vitro-treated antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) following intravenous(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) express a functional NADPH oxidase and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon interaction with microbes and T cells. Exposure to ROS leads to DC activation and maturation, as evidenced by phenotypic and functional changes. We have evaluated how endogenous ROS production affects the cytokine secretion pattern and T cell-activating(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal bacteria trigger IgA production and delayed maturation of mucosal IgA response is linked to allergy development. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to investigate if plasma levels of IgA or APRIL (a proliferation inducing ligand), an important factor for IgA class switch recombination, in infancy correlates with intestinal colonization by any(More)
Expression of the adhesion molecules CD44, L-selectin (CD62L), and integrin alpha 4 beta 7 by antibody-secreting cells (ASC) was examined in human volunteers after oral, rectal, intranasal, or systemic immunization with cholera toxin B subunit. Almost all blood ASC, irrespective of immunization route, isotype (IgG and IgA), and immunogen, expressed CD44. On(More)