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The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage.(More)
Mice immunized intranasally with a formalin-inactivated A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) influenza whole virus vaccine adjuvanted with cholera toxin, outer membrane vesicles from group B meningococci or formalin-inactivated whole cell Bordetella pertussis were protected against replication of the homologous virus in the nasal cavity. Only some mice were protected against(More)
Inhalation of antigens may stimulate the immune system by way of the upper as well as the lower airways. We have shown that at least 1,000 times more live pneumococci were recovered from pulmonary tissue after being presented as drops of a liquid suspension onto the nares of anesthetized mice compared to the number of bacteria recovered from animals that(More)
A nasal vaccine, consisting of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from group B Neisseria meningitidis, was given to 12 volunteers in the form of nose drops or nasal spray four times at weekly intervals, with a fifth dose 5 months later. Each nasal dose consisted of 250 microg of protein, equivalent to 10 times the intramuscular dose that was administered twice(More)
The immunogenicity of formaldehyde-inactivated Bordetella pertussis (Bp) delivered by the intranasal or colonic-rectal routes in BALB/c mice was studied by immunization four times at weekly intervals with Bp alone, or with Bp mixed with cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal adjuvant. Mice given Bp subcutaneously, and untreated mice served as controls. Antibody(More)
IgA antibodies reflecting airways or intestinal mucosal immune responses can be found in saliva and feces, respectively, and IgG antibodies reflecting serum antibodies can be found in saliva. In this study, antibodies were detected in samples of saliva and feces which had been air-dried at room temperature (+20 degrees C) or +37 degrees C, and stored at(More)
We have studied the ability of an intranasally administered whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCP) without adjuvant to induce antigen-specific T cell responses in humans. Six adult volunteers were given a vaccine dose (corresponding to 250 microg protein) by nasal spray four times at weekly intervals, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assayed for(More)
In mice immunised intranasally with an inactivated whole-virus influenza (INV) vaccine, or ovalbumin (OVA), formalin-inactivated Bordetella pertussis (Bp) augmented antibody responses to the same degree as did cholera toxin (CT) when simply being mixed with INV or OVA. In order to study possible non-carrier effects of mucosal adjuvants, mice were given Bp(More)
A whole-cell pertussis vaccine, each dose consisting of 250 microg of protein, was given intranasally four times at weekly intervals to six adult volunteers. All vaccinees responded with increases in nasal fluid IgA antibodies to Bordetella pertussis whole-cell antigen. Three vaccinees with high nasal antibody responses also developed increased serum IgA(More)
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from group B meningococci induced both serum and mucosal antibodies when given as a nasal and rectal vaccine to mice. Cholera toxin (CT) enhanced the antibody responses in serum both after nasal and rectal immunizations, and the mucosal responses after rectal immunizations only. Nasal immunizations, however, were most(More)