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Two mutagenic events are required to make null mutations of polyhomeotic (ph), which suggests that the locus is complex. Amorphic mutations (ph degrees) die in mid-embryogenesis and completely lack ventral thoracic and abdominal epidermal derivatives, whereas single-event mutations lead to transformations similar to those of known dominant gain of function(More)
Aqueous solutions of alcohol-acetic acid-formalin or glutaraldehyde-acrolein were shaken with heptane and heptane phase used for fixation. Phase-partition fixation is akin to fixation with vapor. The organic solvent, immiscible with water, penetrates hydrophobic membranes and carries the fixative in contact with water phase of the tissue. Only the fixative(More)
Rotaviruses are important human pathogens with a triple-layered icosahedral capsid. The major capsid protein VP6 is shown here to self-assemble into spherical or helical particles mainly depending upon pH. Assembly is inhibited either by low pH (<3.0) or by a high concentration (>100 mM) of divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Zn(2+)). The structures of two types(More)
The segmented pattern of the Drosophila embryo depends on a regulatory cascade involving three main classes of genes. An early regulatory programme, set up before cellularization, involves direct transcriptional regulation mediated by gap and pair-rule genes. In a second phase occurring after cellularization, interactions between segment-polarity genes are(More)
Thymosin beta 4 is acknowledged as a major G-actin binding protein maintaining a pool of unassembled actin in motile vertebrate cells. We have examined the function of Tbeta 4 in actin assembly in the high range of concentrations (up to 300 micron) at which Tbeta 4 is found in highly motile blood cells. Tbeta 4 behaves as a simple G-actin sequestering(More)
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a nonenveloped avian virus with a two-segment double-stranded RNA genome. Its T=13 icosahedral capsid is most probably assembled with 780 subunits of VP2 and 600 copies of VP3 and has a diameter of about 60 nm. VP1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, resides inside the viral particle. Using a baculovirus expression(More)
Semliki Forest virus enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The acidic environment of the endosome triggers a membrane fusion reaction that is mediated by the E1 glycoprotein. During fusion, E1 rearranges from an E1/E2 heterodimer to a highly stable, membrane-inserted E1 homotrimer (E1HT). In this study, we analyzed E1HT by a combination of electron(More)
Colchicine is a potent antimitotic poison which is well known to prevent microtubule assembly by binding tubulin very tightly. Colchicine also possesses anti-inflammatory properties which are not well understood yet. Here we show that colchicine tightly interacts with lipid layers. The physical and biological properties of three different lipid derivatives(More)
The recent determination of the crystal structure of VP6, the major capsid protein of rotavirus, revealed a trimer containing a central zinc ion coordinated by histidine 153 from each of the three subunits. The role of the zinc ion in the functions of VP6 was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutation of histidine 153 into a serine (H153S and(More)
We have recently described how oligonucleotide (ON) stability and release from O/W cationic emulsions are governed by the lipid composition. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the properties of the ON/lipid complexes through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), size, surface tension measurements and cryomicroscopy. Starting from a(More)