Inez Schoenmakers

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The field of vitamin D public health research has a pressing need to define sensitive and specific predictors of vitamin D status that can be used to determine whether an individual or population has a supply of vitamin D that is sufficient to meet requirements. The aim of this review is to highlight the considerations needed when evaluating evidence of the(More)
The growth and development of the human skeleton requires an adequate supply of many different nutritional factors. Classical nutrient deficiencies are associated with stunting (e.g. energy, protein, Zn), rickets (e.g. vitamin D) and other bone abnormalities (e.g. Cu, Zn, vitamin C). In recent years there has been interest in the role nutrition may play in(More)
Africa is heterogeneous in latitude, geography, climate, food availability, religious and cultural practices, and skin pigmentation. It is expected, therefore, that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varies widely, in line with influences on skin exposure to UVB sunshine. Furthermore, low calcium intakes and heavy burden of infectious disease common in many(More)
Ethnic differences in bone metabolism have been reported and it has been suggested that these may be partly due to prolonged exposure to an elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration or a decreased sensitivity to PTH. We explored ethnic differences in bone and mineral metabolism by 5 days of oral phosphate (P) loading to stimulate PTH(More)
CONTEXT There is uncertainty over the equivalence of vitamins D2 and D3 to maintain plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to compare the plasma half-lives of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in two distinct populations with different dietary calcium intake and 25(OH)D status. PARTICIPANTS Healthy men (aged 24 and 39 y),(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with bone mass of offspring in many, but not all, observational studies. However, maternal vitamin D repletion during pregnancy has not yet been proven to improve offspring bone mass in a randomised controlled trial. We aimed to assess whether neonates born to mothers supplemented with vitamin D(More)
Vitamin D is an important determinant of bone health at all ages. The plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH D) and other metabolites are used as biomarkers for vitamin sufficiency and function. To allow for the simultaneous determination of five vitamin D metabolites, 25-OH D(3), 25-OH D(2), 24,25-(OH)(2) D(3), 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3), and(More)
CONTEXT Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is a marker of vitamin D status and is lower in African Americans than in whites. Whether this difference holds for free 25OHOD (f25OHD) is unclear, considering reported genetic-racial differences in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) used to calculate f25OHD. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to assess racial-geographic(More)
UNLABELLED MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood.(More)
Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, size and architecture. Birth weight (Bwt) is reported to predict adult bone mass and density. Early life environment may therefore be a determinant of bone strength in later life. However such evidence was obtained using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is known to be dependent on size. We used(More)