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L.S. Penrose was the first to propose a measure of voting power (which later came to be known as 'the [absolute] Banzhaf (Bz) index'). His limit theorem—which is implicit in his booklet (1952) and for which he gave no rigorous proof—says that in simple weighted voting games (WVGs), if the number of voters increases indefinitely while the quota is pegged at… (More)

Penrose's limit theorem (PLT, really a conjecture) states that the relative power measure of two voters tends asymptotically to their relative voting weight (number of votes). This property approximately holds in most of real life and in randomly generated WVGs for various measures of voting power. Lindner and Machover prove it for some special cases;… (More)

We analyze the propensity to approve a random proposal of a large committee that makes decisions by weighted voting. The approach is a generalized version of James Coleman's " power of a collectivity to act ". Throughout the paper it is assumed that the voters are of two kinds: a fixed (possibly empty) set of " major " (big) voters with fixed weights, and… (More)

We introduce the prediction value (PV) as a measure of players' informational importance in probabilistic TU games. The latter combine a standard TU game and a probability distribution over the set of coalitions. Player i's prediction value equals the difference between the conditional expectations of v(S) when i cooperates or not. We characterize the… (More)

BACKGROUND
Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may… (More)

We analyze the long-run equilibrium and adjustment dynamics in three popular models of economic growth when property rights are absent. The results are compared to the outcome in the corresponding economy with secure property rights. The main ndings are that there exists a considerable gain in both, the level and the growth rate of consumption from… (More)

- Eva-Maria Steiger, Jochen Bigus, Hans-Peter Grüner, Manfred Holler, Ines Lindner, Nir Naor +7 others
- 2004

for very helpful critics and suggestions. I also very much bene…tted from comments of the The Deutsche Forschungs-gemeinschaft (DFG) is gratefully acknowledged for …nancial support. Comments and suggestions are welcome! Abstract Observing a strong increase in over-indebted households, several Euro-pean countries identi…ed the need for a separate regulation… (More)

We analyze the long-run equilibrium and adjustment dynamics in three popular models of economic growth when property rights are absent. The results are compared to the outcome in the corresponding economy with secure property rights. The main ndings are that there exists a considerable gain in both, the level and the growth rate of consumption from… (More)