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OBJECTIVE To conduct the first national biological and behavioral surveillance survey for HIV among MSM in Brazil. DESIGN A cross-sectional surveillance study utilizing Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) in 10 cities, following formative research. Planned sample: 350 MSM reporting sex with another man in the last 12 months, at least 18 years of age, and(More)
In Brazil, an increasing proportion of new HIV infections and AIDS cases involve women of reproductive age. To describe the reproductive desire of women with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors associated with the desire for motherhood, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral hospital for infectious diseases in Ceará State, northeast Brazil. In(More)
By 1998, 21% of cumulative AIDS cases in Brazil had occurred among injection drug users (IDUs). After a protracted political battle, the first needle exchange program (NEP) in South America opened in Salvador, Bahia. This paper uses a variety of quantitative and qualitative data sources to describe the opening of the NEP and the impact upon it of a crack(More)
An evaluation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection among 6754 pregnant women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and polymerase chain reaction assay found a rate of infection of 0.84% (57 of 6754 women). Epidemiologic and obstetric data on the HTLV-1-positive pregnant women were(More)
The city of Salvador has the highest prevalence of HTLV-I among blood donors in Brazil. To study the prevalence of HTLV-I among the general population of Salvador, 30 "sentinel surveillance areas" were selected for the investigation of various infectious diseases, and 1385 individuals within these areas were surveyed according to a simple random sample(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries offer a second BCG vaccination to prevent tuberculosis, although there is little evidence of whether this confers additional protection. BCG vaccination is routine in Brazil but BCG revaccination procedures vary by state. We studied revaccination efficacy in two Brazilian cities with tuberculosis prevalence representative of(More)
This paper describes the design and baseline results of a large and simple randomized controlled trial of the protection against tuberculosis of a dose of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination given to school children in a population with a high coverage of neonatal BCG (The Brazilian BCG-REVAC trial). The study started in 1996 and is a pair-matched(More)
We investigated the occurrence of the CCR5Δ32 mutation in various regional ethnic groups in Brazil and tested the resistance of mutant peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to infection by HIV-1 in vitro. The heterozygous prevalence was 5.3% in uninfected African descendents and 8.8% in HIV-1-positive individuals (neither population had Δ32/Δ32).(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the incidence of adverse reactions to first and second bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in schoolchildren. SETTING AND DESIGN Enhanced surveillance in a Brazilian trial. Suspected reactions were reported to a nurse who visited cases and completed a standard form. RESULTS Among 71341 schoolchildren studied, 33 reactions(More)