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Microglia, the resident inflammatory cells of the CNS, are the only CNS cells that express the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1). Using three different in vivo models, we show that CX3CR1 deficiency dysregulates microglial responses, resulting in neurotoxicity. Following peripheral lipopolysaccharide injections, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed cell-autonomous microglial(More)
It has been established recently that inflammation of the CNS is accompanied by an expression of chemokines within the CNS. Several lines of evidence suggest that chemokines within the CNS initiate and orchestrate the infiltration of the inflamed brain by blood leukocytes. It is also known that endogenous cells of the CNS express functional chemokine(More)
Since activated microglia are able to phagocytose damaged cells and subsequently express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and co-stimulatory proteins, they are considered to function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the central nervous system. The maturation and migratory potential of professional APCs is associated with the(More)
Whenever neurons in the CNS are injured, microglia become activated. In addition to local activation, microglia remote from the primary lesion site are stimulated. Because this so-called secondary activation of microglia is instrumental for long-term changes after neuronal injury, it is important to understand how microglia activity is controlled. The(More)
In the present study plastic neural responses to N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxic lesions and the neuroprotective effects of the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel antagonist nimodipine were investigated in the rat magnocellular nucleus basalis. Assessment of spontaneous behaviour in the elevated plus maze and small open-field paradigms on day(More)
We report on a family with X-linked hydrocephalus: progressive increase in head circumference (OFC) led to the diagnosis in 3 patients; however, in 5 with normal OFC, the initial diagnosis had been "nonspecific" mental retardation, until identification of relatedness between 3 macrocephalic boys suggested segregation of a major Mendelian gene. Moderate to(More)
In order to assess the possibility that endotoxin-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is mediated by vagal afferents, we studied the effects of transection of the vagal nerves on endotoxin-induced Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses. Groups(More)
To study possible mechanisms controlling diurnal changes in corticosterone (CORT) levels, we tested the CORT responses to ACTH in the morning (AM) and evening (PM) in male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Rat ACTH-(1-39) or human ACTH-(1-24) (3.75-15 ng/rat) was given as an iv bolus or an intraarterial infusion to (un)anesthetized rats treated with(More)
X-linked recessive hydrocephalus (HSAS) occurs at a frequency of approximately 1 per 30,000 male births and consists of hydrocephalus, stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius, mental retardation, spastic paraparesis, and clasped thumbs. Prenatal diagnosis of affected males by ultrasonographic detection of hydrocephalus is unreliable because hydrocephalus may be(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Induction of cellular migration is the primary effect of chemokine receptor activation. However, several chemokine receptor-like proteins bind chemokines without subsequent induction of intracellular signalling and chemotaxis. It has been suggested that they act as chemokine scavengers, which may control local chemokine levels and(More)