Indrikis A Krams

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Secondary sexual traits that develop under the action of testosterone, such as masculine human male facial characteristics, have been proposed to signal the strength of the immune system due to the sex hormone's immunosuppressive action. Recent work has suggested that glucocorticoid stress hormones may also influence expression of such sexual signals due to(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge(More)
Although human behaviour abounds with reciprocal altruism, few examples exist documenting reciprocal altruism in animals. Recent non-experimental evidence suggests that reciprocal altruism may be more common in nature than previously documented. Here we present experimental evidence of mobbing behaviour, the joint assault on a predator in an attempt to(More)
The risk of predation may influence the acquisition of energy and the feeding activity of animals. Feeding activity and body reserves of wintering great tits Parus major in response to the priority to food access were studied in two areas differing in incidence of predators. The one-predator area contained sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus only, whereas the(More)
Age-related decline in immune activity is referred to as immunosenescence and has been observed for both the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and the innate immune system of invertebrates. Because maintaining a basic level of immune defence and mounting an immune response is costly, optimal investment in immune function should vary over a wide range(More)
The pied flycatcher is one of the most phenotypically variable bird species in Europe. The geographic variation in phenotypes has often been attributed to spatial variation in selection regimes that is associated with the presence or absence of the congeneric collared flycatcher. Spatial variation in phenotypes could however also be generated by spatially(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Keywords: immune challenge mealworm beetle sexual selection Tenebrio molitor terminal(More)
Nest predation is among the most important selective pressure shaping nest-site selection and nest defense behavior in many avian species. In this study, we tested whether the production of one such nest defense behavior—hissing calls—may improve survival of incubating female great tits (Parus major). We found that 72.5 % of incubating females gave hissing(More)
Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest(More)
Winter survival of organisms has a crucial effect on their fitness in a seasonal environment. We tested whether overwinter survival of male water striders, Aquarius najas (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Gerridae), is associated with the time of season they leave the water for winter diapause. This was performed by comparing parameters of males leaving the water at(More)