Indra Kurniawan

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly encountered functional gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly. IBS is characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific organic pathology. The diagnosis of IBS usually depends primarily on established clinical criteria. Currently, Rome III criteria are the(More)
The numbers of older people in the world have been growing rapidly. Anemia is the most common hematologic problem encountered in older adults. However, anemia should not be accepted as an inevitable consequence of aging. Anemia in the elderly signifi es an underlying disease. Iron Defi ciency Anemia (IDA) is being one of the most common causes of anemia in(More)
Clopidogrel is an anti-platelet agent commonly used in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although formerly considered safe, several studies reported that the use of clopidogrel may cause a significant increase in the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. This adverse effect could be minimized by coadministration of proton pump(More)
Recent studies have reported that there is a group of microbiota, which have been shown to bring benefi cial effects on human’s health. They are called probiotics. Probiotics have been defi ned as live, non pathogenic microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefi t on the host. The administration of probiotics can change(More)
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