Indira Spanja

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INTRODUCTION Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradually reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) caused by destruction of a large number of nephrons. Kidney failure is the final stage of CKD with GFR <15ml/min/1.73m(2) or requiring dialysis. Patients must provide vascular access, which is also the "life line" and "Achilles heel" of hemodialysis(More)
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