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Statins are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase that have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. Herein, we investigated anti-excitotoxic and anti-seizure effects of statins by using kainic acid (KA)-rat seizure model, an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. We observed that pre-treatment(More)
Many drugs have been approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis but are only partly effective, are injected, and are expensive. We aimed to investigate use of of oral simvastatin (80 mg) in 30 individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at months 4, 5, and 6 of treatment was compared with(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three NOS isoforms generating nitric oxide (NO) by the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline. iNOS has been found to be a major contributor to initiation/exacerbation of the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory/degenerative conditions through the production of excessive NO which generates reactive(More)
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease (stroke) is one of the leading causes of death and long-time disability. Ischemia/reperfusion to any organ triggers a complex series of biochemical events, which affect the structure and function of every organelle and subcellular system of the affected cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is tightly regulated by the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and plays a central role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolic stress. A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis(More)
Sphingolipids including ceramide and its derivatives such as ceramide-1-phosphate, glycosyl-ceramide, and sphinogosine (-1-phosphate) are now recognized as novel intracellular signal mediators for regulation of inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. One of the important and regulated steps in these events is the generation of these(More)
X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex disease where inactivation of ABCD1 gene results in clinically diverse phenotypes, the fatal disorder of cerebral ALD (cALD) or a milder disorder of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN). Loss of ABCD1 function results in defective beta oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) resulting in excessive accumulation of(More)
Virus-induced elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines is mediated by virus-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of these studies was to determine the source of the virus-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition of viral replication with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 had no effect on virus-induced oxidative stress or interleukin-8 (IL-8)(More)
This study was designed to understand the role of inflammatory mediators involved in the neurobiology of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) by comparing the differential expression of the inflammatory mediators with metabolite very long chain fatty acids that accumulate in this disease. Histopathological examinations indicated extensive demyelination and(More)