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Computing the eigenvalues and orthogonal eigenvectors of an n n symmetric tridiagonal matrix is an important task that arises while solving any symmetric eigenproblem. All practical software requires O(n 3) time to compute all the eigenvectors and ensure their orthogonality when eigenvalues are close. In the rst part of this thesis we review earlier work(More)
Many drugs have been approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis but are only partly effective, are injected, and are expensive. We aimed to investigate use of of oral simvastatin (80 mg) in 30 individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at months 4, 5, and 6 of treatment was compared with(More)
Statins are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase that have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. Herein, we investigated anti-excitotoxic and anti-seizure effects of statins by using kainic acid (KA)-rat seizure model, an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. We observed that pre-treatment(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three NOS isoforms generating nitric oxide (NO) by the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline. iNOS has been found to be a major contributor to initiation/exacerbation of the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory/degenerative conditions through the production of excessive NO which generates reactive(More)
X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex disease where inactivation of ABCD1 gene results in clinically diverse phenotypes, the fatal disorder of cerebral ALD (cALD) or a milder disorder of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN). Loss of ABCD1 function results in defective beta oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) resulting in excessive accumulation of(More)
Previous studies have described that statins (inhibitors of cholesterol and isoprenoid biosynthesis) inhibit the output of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in the animal model and thus decrease risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, their action mechanism(s) in Abeta precursor protein (APP) processing and Abeta generation is not fully understood. In this study, we(More)
This study was designed to understand the role of inflammatory mediators involved in the neurobiology of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) by comparing the differential expression of the inflammatory mediators with metabolite very long chain fatty acids that accumulate in this disease. Histopathological examinations indicated extensive demyelination and(More)
AMP-activated-protein-kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of cellular and whole-body energy metabolism and plays a key role in regulation of lipid metabolism. Since lipid metabolism has been implicated in neuronal amyloid-beta (Abeta) homeostasis and onset of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated the involvement of AMPK in neuronal lipid metabolism(More)
Hyperphosphorylation and polymerization of microtubule-associated protein tau into paired helical filaments (PHFs) is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that neuronal tau hyperphosphorylation under AD conditions is regulated by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous nitric oxide carrier molecule. In cultured rat cortical(More)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces primary and secondary damage in both the endothelium and the brain parenchyma, collectively termed the neurovascular unit. While neurons die quickly by necrosis, a vicious cycle of secondary injury in endothelial cells exacerbates the initial injury in the neurovascular unit following TBI. In activated(More)