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Many drugs have been approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis but are only partly effective, are injected, and are expensive. We aimed to investigate use of of oral simvastatin (80 mg) in 30 individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at months 4, 5, and 6 of treatment was compared with(More)
Statins are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase that have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. Herein, we investigated anti-excitotoxic and anti-seizure effects of statins by using kainic acid (KA)-rat seizure model, an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. We observed that pre-treatment(More)
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is widely used as an AMP-kinase activator, which regulates energy homeostasis and response to metabolic stress. Here, we investigated the effect of AICAR, an AMPK activator, on proliferation of various cancer cells and observed that proliferation of all the examined cell lines was significantly(More)
Three children from unrelated families presented in early childhood with hypoglycemia and cardiorespiratory arrests associated with fasting. Significant hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly, and hypotonia were present at the time of initial presentation. Ketones were not present in the urine at the time of hypoglycemia in any patient; however, dicarboxylic aciduria(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of three NOS isoforms generating nitric oxide (NO) by the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline. iNOS has been found to be a major contributor to initiation/exacerbation of the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory/degenerative conditions through the production of excessive NO which generates reactive(More)
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease (stroke) is one of the leading causes of death and long-time disability. Ischemia/reperfusion to any organ triggers a complex series of biochemical events, which affect the structure and function of every organelle and subcellular system of the affected cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS. Metformin is the most widely used drug for diabetes and mediates its action via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We provide evidence that metformin attenuates the induction of EAE by restricting the infiltration of mononuclear cells into the(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is tightly regulated by the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and plays a central role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolic stress. A pharmacological activator of AMPK, 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis(More)
Virus-induced elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines is mediated by virus-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of these studies was to determine the source of the virus-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition of viral replication with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 had no effect on virus-induced oxidative stress or interleukin-8 (IL-8)(More)