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The genetic loci agouti and extension control the relative amounts of eumelanin (brown-black) and phaeomelanin (yellow-red) pigments in mammals: extension encodes the receptor for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti encodes a novel 131-amino-acid protein containing a signal sequence. Agouti, which is produced in the hair follicle, acts on(More)
TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE) processes precursor TNF alpha between Ala76 and Val77, yielding a correctly processed bioactive 17 kDa protein. Genetic evidence indicates that TACE may also be involved in the shedding of other ectodomains. Here we show that native and recombinant forms of TACE efficiently processed a synthetic substrate corresponding to(More)
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of cartilage damage and degradation in arthritis. In noninflammatory arthropathies such as osteoarthritis (OA), the synovial-derived IL-1 beta has been implicated in the disease process. In this study, we report that human OA-affected cartilage demonstrates upregulated IL-1 beta mRNA(More)
Tetracyclines have recently been shown to have "chondroprotective" effects in inflammatory arthritides in animal models. Since nitric oxide (NO) is spontaneously released from human cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis in quantities sufficient to cause cartilage damage, we evaluated the effect of tetracyclines on the expression(More)
Cartilage specimens from osteoarthritis (OA)-affected patients spontaneously released PGE2 at 48 h in ex vivo culture at levels at least 50-fold higher than in normal cartilage and 18-fold higher than in normal cartilage + cytokines + endotoxin. The superinduction of PGE2 production coincides with the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in OA-affected(More)
Receptor for phage PIK specific for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 was studied. Phage PIK was strongly inactivated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, exhibiting a PhI50 of 4.8 micrograms/ml. Further it was noted that this inactivation by LPS was reduced to 50% by several mono- and disaccharides when tested in vitro. D-glucosamine, D-mannose and(More)
Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca2+ is believed(More)
Transfection of U937 and THP-1 cells with a recombinant plasmid, pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT, containing 4 kb of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene upstream regulatory sequence resulted in inducer-dependent expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. Treatment of the transfected cells with various combinations of the inducers lipopolysaccharide,(More)
Interleukin 1 (IL-1), produced by both synovial cells and chondrocytes, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the specific expression and function of IL-1 receptor family-related genes in human joint tissues. Gene array analysis of human normal and OA-affected cartilage showed mRNA expression(More)
studies in humans have been reported. This study was undertaken to determine whether the histopathological grade of human hepatocellular carcinoma could be quantitatively correlated with GDH (EC 1.4. 1.3) activity in nonneoplastic liver and tumor tissues obtained by biopsy, and whether either of these 2 variables correlated with levels of serological(More)