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RATIONALE Latent inhibition (LI), namely, poorer performance on a learning task involving a previously pre-exposed non-reinforced stimulus, is disrupted in the rat by the dopamine (DA) releaser amphetamine which produces and exacerbates psychotic (positive) symptoms, and this is reversed by treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs)(More)
This Commentary compares the connections of the dopaminergic system with the striatum in rats and primates with respect to two levels of striatal organization: a tripartite functional (motor, associative and limbic) subdivision and a compartmental (patch/striosome-matrix) subdivision. The topography of other basal ganglia projections to the dopaminergic(More)
Prenatal exposure to infection is associated with increased liability to schizophrenia, and it is believed that such an association is mediated by the maternal immune response, in particular, the proinflammatory cytokines released by the maternal immune system, which may disrupt fetal brain development. Impaired capacity to ignore irrelevant stimuli is one(More)
RATIONALE Schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances in sensorimotor gating and attentional processes, which can be measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI), respectively. Research has implicated dysfunction of neurotransmission at the NMDA-type glutamate receptor in this disorder. OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to examine(More)
In the latent inhibition (LI) paradigm, nonreinforced preexposure to a stimulus retards subsequent conditioning to that stimulus. Three experiments investigated the effects of acute amphetamine administration on LI in rats. Experiments 1 and 3 used a conditioned emotional response (CER) procedure and Experiment 2 used two-way active avoidance procedure.(More)
Latent inhibition (LI) consists of retardation in conditioning to a stimulus as a consequence of its prior non-reinforced pre-exposure. In view of findings that LI is disrupted in acute schizophrenic patients and evidence from animal experiments pointing to the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in this phenomenon, the present study(More)
The current view of basal ganglia organization holds that functionally corresponding subregions of the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus form several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. In addition, this view states that striatal output reaches the basal ganglia output nuclei (the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and(More)
The animal amphetamine model of schizophrenia has been based primarily on stereotyped behavior. The present study sought to demonstrate an amphetamine-induced deficit in attentional processes. To this end, the effects of acute and chronic (14 days) 1.5 mg/kg dl-amphetamine administration on the ability of rats to ignore irrelevant stimuli were examined(More)
The effects of electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or its subregions were investigated on two cognitive tests that may have relevance to the behavioral impairments of patients with schizophrenia. One task consisted of a delayed non-match-to-sample and reversal of the non-match-to-sample rule, in a Skinner box. The reversal component(More)