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OBJECTIVE To ascertain the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus (HHV) type 8, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in semen was investigated. METHODS Amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect viral DNA sequences in samples from 24 HIV-infected gay men, 15 of them with Kaposi's(More)
BACKGROUND HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often managed without routine laboratory monitoring in Africa; however, the effect of this approach is unknown. This trial investigated whether routine toxicity and efficacy monitoring of HIV-infected patients receiving ART had an important long-term effect on clinical outcomes in Africa. METHODS In this(More)
BACKGROUND Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, may be the infectious cause of KS. Its prevalence in the general population, on the basis of detection of the virus genome, is controversial. To investigate the seroprevalence, we measured antibodies to a recombinant capsid-related (lytic cycle) KSHV antigen and a(More)
BACKGROUND CD4 lymphocyte counts are used to monitor immune status in HIV disease. An understanding of the variability of CD4 counts which occurs in the absence of HIV infection is essential to their interpretation. The sources and degree of such variability have not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVES To establish reference ranges for CD4 counts in(More)
The incidence of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia was studied in 105 homosexual men with HIV infection. Lymphopenia was common in patients with AIDS (75%), but its incidence in PGL (24%) was not significantly different from that in asymptomatic anti-HIV positive (15%) homosexual men. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were found in patients with(More)
Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) was precipitated from archival serum with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantified by reverse transcription and amplification in a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The assay of end-point dilutions cDNA in nested PCRs allowed an estimation of the minimum RNA copies per(More)
Four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (CDC group IV) were investigated for biliary disease because of the presence of both severe upper abdominal pain and raised levels of serum alkaline phosphatase. None was clinically jaundiced. Upper abdominal ultrasound was abnormal in three. All had endoscopic retrograde cholangiographic evidence(More)
In vitro studies shows that recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and beta, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) can enhance HIV replication, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with HIV in vitro secrete high levels of the same cytokines. As T cells secrete all three mediators, the capacity of T cell activation signals to trigger(More)
Existing methods for detecting complete virus particles in the serum of patients with chronic HBV infection are either insensitive or indirect. A method is described in which Dane particle-associated DNA is extracted from a small volume of serum and detected by molecular hybridization using 32P-labeled cloned HBV-DNA or HBV-DNA extracted from the serum of(More)
OBJECTIVES Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV infections share risk-factors; therefore coinfection is common. Interactions have been reported but controlled studies have been limited. Our objective was to study the effect of HIV infection on the natural history of chronic HBV infection and the reverse effect of the HBV carrier state on HIV infection. DESIGN(More)