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During human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a rapid increase in AP-1 activity is detected. In this study, activation of transcription from promoters containing AP-1-binding sites by the IE1 protein of HCMV was examined. In transient transfection assays with reporter plasmids, it was found that IE1 strongly induced AP-1-driven transcription. Cells stably(More)
Flagellin, the structural component of the flagellar filament in various motile bacteria, can contribute to the activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokine expression during the innate immune response in host cells. Thus, flagellin proteins represent a particularly attractive target for the development of vaccine candidates. In this study, we(More)
Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox(More)
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