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Infection with Edwardsiella tarda, a gram-negative bacterium, causes high morbidity and mortality in both marine and freshwater fish. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from gram-negative bacteria are known to play important roles in bacterial pathogenesis and host immune responses, but no such roles for E. tarda OMVs have yet been described. In the(More)
The gene encoding nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) was cloned from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and the role played by NOD1 during Edwardsiella tarda infection was evaluated. The complete open reading frame of NOD1 was 2820 bp in length, encoding a 939-amino acid polypeptide. The NOD1 protein contains three conserved domain(More)
Although Streptococcus parauberis is known as a bacterial pathogen associated with bovine udder mastitis, it has recently become one of the major causative agents of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) streptococcosis in northeast Asia, causing massive mortality resulting in severe economic losses. S. parauberis contains two serotypes, and it is likely(More)
Soft tunic syndrome of Halocynthia roretzi manifests as soft, weak, and rupturable tunics, causing mass mortality. Utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), innate immune response was established by comparing hemolymph protein profiles of ascidians with healthy or softened tunics. Of 100 proteins in each individual ascidian, 59(More)
Although the major capsid proteins (MCPs) of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) have been characterized, little is known about the host-derived immune response to MCPs and other LCDV antigenic proteins. To identify antigenic proteins of LCDV that could be used as vaccine candidates in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, we analysed the viral proteins(More)
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a cytokine that plays a very important role in defining Th1 immune response in all vertebrates. In this study, recombinant IFN-γ (rIFN-γ) from the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was produced in an Escherichia coli system using a pET expression vector. Stimulation of whole kidney leukocytes (immune-related cells) in vitro(More)
Bacteriophages are the largest reservoir of genetic diversity. Here we describe the novel phage ΦJM-2012. This natural isolate from marine Vibrio cyclitrophicus possesses very few gene contents relevant to other well-studied marine Vibrio phages. To better understand its evolutionary history, we built a mathematical model of pairwise relationships among(More)
Ranaviruses are serious pathogens of fish, amphibians, and reptiles, and pose a major threat to global biodiversity. A ranavirus isolated from tissues of diseased tadpoles and frogs in Gangwon province, Korea, in 2006 and 2007, was designated Korean ranavirus-1 (KRV-1) and was infectious in a variety of fish cell lines with highest titers(More)
Ranaviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses of the family Iridoviridae and are known to be primary pathogens in frogs, fish and other amphibians. These viruses have been shown to be highly adaptable and have the ability to cross species barriers, making them a potent threat to global biodiversity. There is therefore, a need for rapid and efficient(More)
Streptococcus parauberis, which is the main causative agent of streptococcosis among olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in northeast Asia, can be distinctly divided into two groups (type I and type II) by an agglutination test. Here, the whole genome sequences of two Japanese strains (KRS-02083 and KRS-02109) were determined and compared with the(More)