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The reported transmission of avian H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the isolation of these viruses from Hong Kong poultry markets lend urgency to studies of their ecology and pathogenicity. We found that H9N2 viruses from North America differ from those of Asia. The North American viruses, which infect primarily domestic turkeys, replicated poorly in(More)
Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of five Korean H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates showed that these viruses were closely related and possibly came from the same source. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 subunit of H9 subtype isolates revealed that Korean AIV isolates were different from isolates from the poultry markets in Hong Kong(More)
Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated intratracheally with avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates of either low or high pathogenicity. Viruses of low pathogenicity, previously characterized as mildly pathogenic (MP), included(More)
Outbreaks ofhydropericardium syndrome (HPS), caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), have occurred in Korea and caused severe economic loss due to mortality and weight loss. From these outbreaks, several adenoviruses were isolated and identified in samples from broilers, layers, breeders, and native Korean fowl. In pathologic examinations,(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease of chickens that results in high mortality. In this study we re-evaluated the ability of live S. Gallinarum 9R vaccine to protect from wild-type S. Gallinarum challenge. In laboratory trials, there was a significant difference between the(More)
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. gallinarum) is the agent of fowl typhoid, and the 9R vaccine is a commercially available, live vaccine for the prevention of fowl typhoid. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the 9R vaccine in young chickens. The mean weights of 5-week-old chickens vaccinated with one and(More)
The entrance of influenza virus into host cells is facilitated by the attachment of the globular region of viral hemagglutinin to the sialic acid receptors on host cell surfaces. In this study, we have cloned the cDNA fragment encoding the entire globular region (residues 101-257) of hemagglutinin of the H9N2 type avian influenza virus (A/ck/Korea/ms96/96).(More)
To evaluate the degree of competitive exclusion against Salmonella gallinarum(S. gallinarum) of Salmonella enteritidis(S. enteritidis) infected chickens, fifty-six, 4-week old Hyline layer suspected of S. enteritidis infection were challenged with S. gallinarum. All chickens were tested for S. enteritidis isolation using cloacal swabs and serum plate(More)
The potency of influenza vaccine is determined based on its hemagglutinin (HA) content. In general, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay has been utilized as the standard method to measure HA content. However, preparation of reagents for SRID such as antigen and antibody takes approximately 2~3 months, which causes delays in the development of(More)
Single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay requires a reference antigen and an antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) of an influenza vaccine. As it takes 2‑3 months to develop the reference antigen, vaccine development is delayed in cases of an influenza pandemic. In the present study, the measurement of the HA content of influenza vaccines was assessed using(More)