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The objective of this research was to compare the length of muscle spindles to the length of the whole muscle, during normal movements. Pairs of piezoelectric crystals were implanted near the origin and insertion of muscle fibres in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle of cats. The distance between crystals was measured with pulsed ultrasound, the(More)
In the present report, we provide evidence that mesencephalic trigeminal (Mes-V) sensory neurons, a peculiar type of primary afferent cell with its cell body located within the CNS, may operate in different functional modes depending on the degree of their membrane polarization. Using intracellular recording techniques in the slice preparation of the adult(More)
Trigeminal motoneurons of the guinea pig brain stem slice preparation were studied using intracellular recording techniques. The voltage response to a 100-ms constant-current pulse was studied and a population of cells was found which did not exhibit sag or overshoot of their voltage response to a pulse of hyperpolarizing current of < 1 nA but did exhibit(More)
The present study was undertaken to determine the location of trigeminal and hypoglossal premotor neurons that express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the cat. Cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was injected into the trigeminal (mV) or the hypoglossal (mXII) motor nuclei in order to label the corresponding premotor neurons. CTb immunocytochemistry was(More)
In the present study we found that mesencephalic trigeminal (Mes-V) neurons of the rat are innervated by nitrergic fibers and that nitric oxide (NO) modifies the electrophysiological properties of these cells. Mes-V neurons were surrounded by a network of fibers that contained neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS); these fibers gave rise to terminal-,(More)
In the present study, we report that the cuneiform (Cun) nucleus, a brainstem structure that before now has not been implicated in sleep processes, exhibits a large number of neurons that express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep (AS-carbachol). Compared with control (awake) cats, during AS-carbachol, there was a 671% increase in the number of(More)
The lengths and pinnation angles of muscle fibers in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle have recently been measured in freely moving cats [Hoffer et al., Progr. Brain Res. 80, 75-85 (1989); Muscle Afferents and Spinal Control of Movement (1992)] using an ultrasound transit-time (USTT) technique. This method assumed that the velocity of ultrasound through(More)
We have proposed that neurotrophins, in addition to their trophic actions, act as neuromodulators in the adult central nervous system. As a first step to test this hypothesis, we examined in the adult rat slice preparation whether nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 are capable of altering the excitability of neurons of the mesencencephalic trigeminal(More)
It is currently thought that the hypothalamus influences motor output through connections with premotor structures which in turn project to motor nuclei. However, hypocretinergic/orexinergic projections to different motor pools have recently been demonstrated. The present study was undertaken to examine whether hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons are the(More)
This report presents the results of a study of the frequency potentiation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hypoglossal motoneurons and its modulation by serotonin. A release-site model of synaptic plasticity was used to characterize the frequency-related potentiation of evoked IPSCs. Data were obtained to determine if the frequency(More)