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Many children are at risk of not achieving their full potential for development. Epidemiological studies have the advantage of being able to identify a number of associated factors potentially amenable to intervention. Our purpose was to identify risk factors for suspected developmental delay (SDD) at age 2 years among all children born in the city of(More)
Eyeblink classical conditioning is a widely used associative learning paradigm that has striking behavioral and neurobiological parallels between humans and other mammals. Eyeblink conditioning is impaired in older organisms, and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are impaired beyond the normal aging deficit. The cholinergic system is of demonstrated(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring growth using three approaches: (1) multiple adjustments for socioeconomic and parental factors, (2) maternal-paternal comparisons as a test of putative intrauterine effects and (3) comparisons between two birth cohort studies. METHODS Population-based birth cohort studies(More)
BACKGROUND The postnatal period is the ideal time to deliver interventions to improve the health of both the newborn and the mother. However, postnatal care shows low-level coverage in a large number of countries. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate inequities in maternal postnatal visits, 2) examine differences in postnatal care coverage(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood. METHODS Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether breast feeding protects infants against pneumonia and whether the protection varies with age. DESIGN Nested case-control study. SETTING Pelotas, southern Brazil. SUBJECTS Cases were 152 infants aged 28-364 days who had been admitted to hospital for pneumonia. Controls were 2391 cases in a population based case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Middle-income countries will need to drastically reduce neonatal deaths to achieve the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. The evolution of antenatal and perinatal care indicators in the Brazilian city of Pelotas from 1982 to 2004 provides a useful case study of potential challenges. METHODS We prospectively studied three birth(More)
BACKGROUND The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal(More)
BACKGROUND Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes are dynamic and vary over time. Differences between countries can provide useful insights into the causes of health inequalities. The study aims to compare the associations between two measures of socioeconomic position (SEP)-maternal education and family income-and maternal and infant health outcomes(More)