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Within the past decade, extracellular vesicles have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication, being involved in the transmission of biological signals between cells in both prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes to regulate a diverse range of biological processes. In addition, pathophysiological roles for extracellular vesicles are beginning(More)
Using oligonucleotide-based drugs to modulate gene expression has opened a new avenue for drug discovery. In particular small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are being rapidly recognized as promising therapeutic tools, but their poor bioavailability limits the full realization of their clinical potential. In recent years, cumulating evidence has emerged for the(More)
We investigated finger beat-to-beat blood pressure responses to a series of successive hand elevations in 14 normal volunteers. By passive elevation of the hand by 40 cm and lowering it again after a minute, calibrated hydrostatic pressure changes were induced in the finger arteries of the subjects. Three successive procedures with a 2-min interval between(More)
BACKGROUND Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described. AIM Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and size(More)
Cells release nano-sized membrane vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. It is generally accepted that cells release at least three types of extracellular vesicles (EVs): apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. While a wide range of putative biological functions have been(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted human pathogen. Infection results in minimal to no symptoms in approximately two-thirds of women and therefore often goes undiagnosed. C. trachomatis infections are a major public health concern because of the potential severe long-term consequences, including an increased risk of ectopic(More)
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short cationic/amphipathic peptides that can be used to deliver a variety of cargos into cells. However, it is still debated which routes CPPs employ to gain access to intracellular compartments. To assess this, most previously conducted studies have relied on information which is gained by using fluorescently labeled(More)
Finding suitable nonviral delivery vehicles for nucleic acid-based therapeutics is a landmark goal in gene therapy. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are one class of delivery vectors that has been exploited for this purpose. However, since CPPs use endocytosis to enter cells, a large fraction of peptides remain trapped in endosomes. We have previously(More)
The hydrophobic plasma membrane constitutes an indispensable barrier for cells, allowing influx of essential molecules while preventing access to other macromolecules. Although pivotal for the maintenance of cells, the inability to cross the plasma membrane is one of the major obstacles toward current drug development. Oligonucleotides (ONs) are a group of(More)
To transverse the plasma membrane and gain access to the cellular interior is one of the major obstacles for many novel pharmaceutical molecules. Since the late 1990s, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been utilized as transport vectors for a broad spectrum of 'biological cargoes', ranging from inert gold particles to multifaceted macromolecules such as(More)