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The medial septum, diagonal bands, ventral pallidum, substantia innominata, globus pallidus, and internal capsule contain a heterogeneous population of neurons, including cholinergic and noncholinergic (mostly GABA containing), corticopetal projection neurons, and interneurons. This highly complex brain region, which constitutes a significant part of the(More)
Kisspeptin signaling via the kisspeptin receptor G-protein-coupled receptor-54 plays a fundamental role in the onset of puberty and the regulation of mammalian reproduction. In this immunocytochemical study we addressed the (i) topography, (ii) sexual dimorphism, (iii) relationship to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and (iv) neurokinin B(More)
Isoforms of the recently cloned vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) selectively accumulate glutamic acid into synaptic vesicles in excitatory axon terminals and are viewed as reliable markers for glutamatergic neurons. Our present studies provided dual-label in situ hybridization evidence that virtually all (99.5%) GnRH neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA(More)
Double-label immunohistochemistry was employed to establish whether immunoreactivity for the beta subtype of the oestrogen receptor (ER beta-IR) is present in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing cells. In the immortalized GnRH cell line, GT1-7, almost all nuclei were immunoreactive for ER beta. In the preoptic area of ovariectomized rats, more(More)
Topographical distribution of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta)-synthesizing oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons was studied in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei (PVH; SO) of ovariectomized rats. In distinct subregions, 45-98% of OT neurons and 88-99% of VP neurons exhibited ER-beta immunoreactivity that was confined to cell(More)
The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) belong to a superfamily of structurally related peptide hormones that includes glucagon, glucagon-like peptides, secretin, and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Microinjection of VIP or PACAP into the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)(More)
Violence is associated with prefrontal deficits in humans, suggesting that this brain area inhibits aggressiveness. Its role, however, remains controversial, as certain subdivisions of the prefrontal cortex become activated by fights in rodents. Disparate human findings also show that this area is acutely activated by aggression under certain conditions. We(More)
We recently reported that soy isoflavones increase gene expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and antioxidant defense enzymes, resulting in improved endothelial function and lower blood pressure in vivo. In this study, we establish that equol (1-100 nM) causes acute endothelium- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and(More)
Hypothyroidism in humans is characterized by severe neurological consequences that are often irreversible, highlighting the critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in the brain. Despite this, not much is known about the signaling pathways that control TH action in the brain. What is known is that the prohormone thyroxine (T4) is converted to the active(More)
The regulatory actions of estrogen on magnocellular oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei are well documented. To date it is still debated whether the effect of estrogens is exerted directly or mediated by estrogen-sensitive interneurons. Previous immunocytochemical (ICC) and in situ(More)