Learn More
The medial septum, diagonal bands, ventral pallidum, substantia innominata, globus pallidus, and internal capsule contain a heterogeneous population of neurons, including cholinergic and noncholinergic (mostly GABA containing), corticopetal projection neurons, and interneurons. This highly complex brain region, which constitutes a significant part of the(More)
Isoforms of the recently cloned vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) selectively accumulate glutamic acid into synaptic vesicles in excitatory axon terminals and are viewed as reliable markers for glutamatergic neurons. Our present studies provided dual-label in situ hybridization evidence that virtually all (99.5%) GnRH neurons express VGLUT2 mRNA(More)
The regulatory actions of estrogen on magnocellular oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei are well documented. To date it is still debated whether the effect of estrogens is exerted directly or mediated by estrogen-sensitive interneurons. Previous immunocytochemical (ICC) and in situ(More)
The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) belong to a superfamily of structurally related peptide hormones that includes glucagon, glucagon-like peptides, secretin, and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Microinjection of VIP or PACAP into the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)(More)
Violence is associated with prefrontal deficits in humans, suggesting that this brain area inhibits aggressiveness. Its role, however, remains controversial, as certain subdivisions of the prefrontal cortex become activated by fights in rodents. Disparate human findings also show that this area is acutely activated by aggression under certain conditions. We(More)
Kisspeptin signaling via the kisspeptin receptor G-protein-coupled receptor-54 plays a fundamental role in the onset of puberty and the regulation of mammalian reproduction. In this immunocytochemical study we addressed the (i) topography, (ii) sexual dimorphism, (iii) relationship to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and (iv) neurokinin B(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains the predominant circadian pacemaker in mammals. Considerable evidence indicates that VPAC(2) and PAC(1), receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), play critical roles in maintaining and entraining circadian rhythms. Retinal projections to the rat(More)
Double-label immunohistochemistry was employed to establish whether immunoreactivity for the beta subtype of the oestrogen receptor (ER beta-IR) is present in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing cells. In the immortalized GnRH cell line, GT1-7, almost all nuclei were immunoreactive for ER beta. In the preoptic area of ovariectomized rats, more(More)
Ageing alters fundamental aspects of circadian rhythmicity in mammals; the effects include reduced rhythm amplitude and alterations in period length and in entrainment to the light/dark cycle. Such changes may reflect disruptions in cellular function within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the site of the predominant circadian pacemaker. In the SCN,(More)
Circadian rhythms in mammals depend on the properties of cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retino-recipient core of the mouse SCN is characterized by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons. Expression within the SCN of VPAC2, a VIP receptor, is required for circadian rhythmicity. Using transgenic mice with beta-galactosidase as a marker(More)