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INTRODUCTION Ghrelin and cannabinoids stimulate appetite, this effect possibly being mediated by the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key enzyme in appetite and metabolism regulation. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant can block the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. In this study, we have elucidated the(More)
In previous work, we identified a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycogen synthase gene, GSY1, which codes for an 85-kDa polypeptide present in purified yeast glycogen synthase (Farkas, I., Hardy, T.A., DePaoli-Roach, A.A., and Roach, P.J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 20879-20886). We have now cloned another gene, GSY2, which encodes a second S. cerevisiae glycogen(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient levels control multiple cellular processes. Cells lacking the SNF1 gene cannot express glucose-repressible genes and do not accumulate the storage polysaccharide glycogen. The impaired glycogen synthesis is due to maintenance of glycogen synthase in a hyperphosphorylated, inactive state. In a screen for second site(More)
Glycogen synthase preparations from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contained two polypeptides of molecular weights 85,000 and 77,000. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence were utilized to clone a S. cerevisiae glycogen synthase gene, GSY1. The gene would encode a protein of 707 residues, molecular mass 80,501 daltons, with 50% overall identity to mammalian(More)
Neuronal plasticity within the amygdala mediates many behavioral effects of traumatic experience, and this brain region also controls various aspects of social behavior. However, the specific involvement of the amygdala in trauma-induced social deficits has never been systematically investigated. We exposed rats to a single series of electric foot-shocks--a(More)
1. We report the first experimental evidence of a neuronal C5a receptor (nC5aR) in human cells of neuronal origin. Expression of nC5aR mRNA was demonstrated by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in TGW human neuroblastoma cells. 2. Expression of a functional C5aR was supported by the finding that C5a evoked a transient increase in(More)
Protein phosphatase-1 and 2A, accounting for all the hepatic activity regulating phosphorylase, were assayed in streptozotocin-induced (8 weeks) diabetic Wistar rats. Cytosolic protein phosphatase-1 and 2A were distinguished by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and by inhibition with inhibitor-2. Approx. 25-35% increases in type-1 phosphorylase(More)
Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control) at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R) are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the(More)
Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, is a storage molecule whose accumulation is under rigorous nutritional control in many cells. We report the identification of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, GLG1 and GLG2, whose products are implicated in the biogenesis of glycogen. These genes encode self-glucosylating proteins that in vitro can act as primers(More)
The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is a key nucleus for the regulation of feeding behavior. Inhibitory inputs from the hypothalamus to the PBN play a crucial role in the normal maintenance of feeding behavior, because their loss leads to starvation. Viscerosensory stimuli result in neuronal activation of the PBN. However, the origin and neurochemical identity(More)