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1. Recent evidence from studies in mice lacking the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor and from experiments using antibodies raised against orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) suggest that this peptide may be involved in morphine tolerance. In the present study we sought to investigate if administration of exogenous OFQ/N would modulate the development of(More)
The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of(More)
The relationships among species' physiological capacities and the geographical variation of ambient climate are of key importance to understanding the distribution of life on the Earth. Furthermore, predictions of how species will respond to climate change will profit from the explicit consideration of their physiological tolerances. The climatic(More)
RATIONALE Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, shows similarities to dynorphin A (1-17) in structure and functions. Dynorphin and other kappa opioid receptor agonists have been shown to block cocaine sensitization. OBJECTIVE The present study was designed to examine the ability of OFQ/N to(More)
This paper starts the investigation on dynamic algorithms for solving games that are played on finite graphs. The dynamic game determinacy problem calls for finding efficient algorithms that decide the winner of the game when the underlying graph undergoes repeated modifications. In this paper, we focus on turn-based reachability games. We provide an(More)
Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (grey francolin, Galliformes) is the only francolin present in the Suleiman Range (central Pakistan), one of the poorest and least developed areas in Pakistan. As a game bird, the francolin is an important income source for the region, but no demographic data are available. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study(More)
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