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1. Recent evidence from studies in mice lacking the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor and from experiments using antibodies raised against orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) suggest that this peptide may be involved in morphine tolerance. In the present study we sought to investigate if administration of exogenous OFQ/N would modulate the development of(More)
The relationships among species' physiological capacities and the geographical variation of ambient climate are of key importance to understanding the distribution of life on the Earth. Furthermore, predictions of how species will respond to climate change will profit from the explicit consideration of their physiological tolerances. The climatic(More)
The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of(More)
Abstract Rationale. Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptor, shows similarities to dynorphin A (1–17) in structure and functions. Dynorphin and other kappa opioid receptor agonists have been shown to block cocaine sensitization. Objective. The present study was designed to examine the ability of(More)
This paper starts the investigation on dynamic algorithms for solving games that are played on finite graphs. The dynamic game determinacy problem calls for finding efficient algorithms that decide the winner of the game when the underlying graph undergoes repeated modifications. In this paper, we focus on turn-based reachability games. We provide an(More)
In today’s video game market there are hundreds of massively multiplayer online games, many of which boast dynamic content—the content that responds to player’s actions and changes accordingly in runtime. Such content is not truly dynamic and is usually attributed to events on a timer. This presents a major flaw as it heavily affects the replayability of a(More)
Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (grey francolin, Galliformes) is the only francolin present in the Suleiman Range (central Pakistan), one of the poorest and least developed areas in Pakistan. As a game bird, the francolin is an important income source for the region, but no demographic data are available. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study(More)