Imran Iqbal

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OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether five days' treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource settings. DESIGN Open label randomised controlled trial. SETTING Inpatient wards within tertiary care hospitals in(More)
The class I MHC allele HLA-B27 is highly associated with the human spondyloarthropathies, but the basis for this association remains poorly understood. Transgenic rats with high expression of HLA-B27 develop a multisystem inflammatory disease that includes arthritis and colitis. To investigate whether CD8alphabeta T cells are needed in this disease, we(More)
INTRODUCTION WHO pneumonia case management guidelines recommend oral amoxicillin as first line treatment for non-severe pneumonia. Increasing treatment failure rates have been reported over a period of time, which could possibly be due to increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae for amoxicillin.(More)
Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used widely in organ transplantation and topically for atopic dermatitis. Tacrolimus exerts its immunosuppressive effects by the inhibition of calcineurin, leading to interference with T-cell activation. As T-cell activation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, there has been(More)
The traditional approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs usually in combination with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) such as hydroxychloroquine, gold, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, leflunomide or cyclosporin. Each of these DMARDs has its own distinct toxicities but has also(More)
Anakinra (Amgen, Inc.) is a specific receptor antagonist of IL-1 that differs from naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist by the presence of a methionine group. Anakinra has been shown to be of benefit in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, either when given alone or in combination with methotrexate, as assessed by improvement in clinical signs(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are commonly thought of as inflammatory diseases that affect younger individuals. Although the initial presentation of these diseases is commonly in a patient's twenties or thirties, they usually persist for the duration of the patient's life. In addition, up to one-third(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The incidence of OA increases with age, and as longevity increases, it will cause a significant socioeconomic burden. No disease-modifying therapy is available for OA. Recent research has highlighted the role of inflammation in the progression of(More)
The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically over the past 15 years with the realisation that earlier, aggressive therapy limits progression. There is evidence that biological response modifiers (BRMs), which target specific cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1, are more effective than traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs(More)