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Anakinra (Amgen, Inc.) is a specific receptor antagonist of IL-1 that differs from naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist by the presence of a methionine group. Anakinra has been shown to be of benefit in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, either when given alone or in combination with methotrexate, as assessed by improvement in clinical signs(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether five days' treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource settings. DESIGN Open label randomised controlled trial. SETTING Inpatient wards within tertiary care hospitals in(More)
The class I MHC allele HLA-B27 is highly associated with the human spondyloarthropathies, but the basis for this association remains poorly understood. Transgenic rats with high expression of HLA-B27 develop a multisystem inflammatory disease that includes arthritis and colitis. To investigate whether CD8alphabeta T cells are needed in this disease, we(More)
INTRODUCTION WHO pneumonia case management guidelines recommend oral amoxicillin as first line treatment for non-severe pneumonia. Increasing treatment failure rates have been reported over a period of time, which could possibly be due to increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae for amoxicillin.(More)
OBJECTIVE To find clinical features and bacteriological agents of neonatal sepsis and to determine their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. DESIGN An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Paediatric Medicine Unit II, Nishtar Hospital, Multan, from July 2003 to January 2004. PATIENTS AND METHODS Neonates admitted with, or clinically suspected(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study was to determine the optimal number of throws to ensure knot security. STUDY DESIGN Knots were tied with 3, 4, 5, or 6 square throws with 0-gauge coated polyester, polydioxanone, polypropylene, and polyglactin 910. The suture was soaked in 0.9% sodium chloride and subsequently transferred to a tensiometer and broken. (More)
The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically over the past 15 years with the realisation that earlier, aggressive therapy limits progression. There is evidence that biological response modifiers (BRMs), which target specific cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1, are more effective than traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are commonly thought of as inflammatory diseases that affect younger individuals. Although the initial presentation of these diseases is commonly in a patient's twenties or thirties, they usually persist for the duration of the patient's life. In addition, up to one-third(More)
The traditional approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs usually in combination with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) such as hydroxychloroquine, gold, sulfasalazine, methotrexate, leflunomide or cyclosporin. Each of these DMARDs has its own distinct toxicities but has also(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The incidence of OA increases with age, and as longevity increases, it will cause a significant socioeconomic burden. No disease-modifying therapy is available for OA. Recent research has highlighted the role of inflammation in the progression of(More)