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BACKGROUND Symptom-based questionnaires can be a cost effective tool enabling identification and diagnosis of patients with respiratory illnesses in resource limited setting. This study aimed to determine the correlation of respiratory symptoms and spirometric lung patterns and validity of ATS respiratory questionnaire in a rural community setting. (More)
BACKGROUND Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs) began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910) emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional(More)
OBJECTIVES Several occupations in developing countries lag behind in ensuring the safety of their workers in occupational settings. Lack of implementation of safety guidelines at workplaces can expose workers to health risks. In Pakistan, barbers are one of the un-regulated occupational groups. Low literacy, increased frequency of direct skin contact and(More)
This paper proposes a compact design of SMS4 S-box using combinational logic which is suitable for the implementation in area constraint environments like smart cards. The inversion algorithm of the proposed S-box is based on composite field GF(((2 2) 2) 2) using normal basis at all levels. In our approach, we examined all possible normal basis combinations(More)
BACKGROUND Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations' universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were(More)
Complex systems are fascinating because emergent phenomena are often unpredictable and appear to arise ex nihilo. The other side of this fascination, however, is a certain difficulty in comprehending complex systems , particularly for students. To help students more fully understand emergence and self-organization, a course on complexity theory was designed(More)
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