Imna I Malele

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The accurate identification of trypanosome species and subspecies remains a challenging task in the epidemiology of human and animal trypanosomiasis in tropical Africa. Currently, there are specific PCR tests to identify about 10 different species, subspecies or subgroups of African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. These PCR tests have been used here to(More)
Salivarian trypanosomes pose a substantial threat to livestock, but their full diversity is not known. To survey trypanosomes carried by tsetse in Tanzania, DNA samples from infected proboscides of Glossina pallidipes and G. swynnertoni were identified using fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which discriminates species by size polymorphisms in(More)
We investigated the dynamics of Glossina spp. and their role in the transmission of trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness endemic Serengeti ecosystem, northwestern Tanzania. The study investigated Glossina species composition, trap density, trypanosome infection rates, and the diversity of trypanosomes infecting the species. Tsetse were trapped using(More)
We describe a novel method of species identification, fluorescent fragment length barcoding, based on length variation in regions of the 18S and 28Salpha ribosomal DNA. Fluorescently tagged primers, designed in conserved regions of the 18S and 28Salpha ribosomal DNA, were used to amplify fragments with inter-species size variation, and sizes determined(More)
Tsetse flies transmit many species of trypanosomes in Africa, some of which are human and livestock pathogens of major medical and socio-economic impact. Identification of trypanosomes is essential to assess the disease risk posed by particular tsetse populations. We have developed a single generic PCR test to replace the multiple species-specific PCR tests(More)
Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring the prevalence of transmissible Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in tsetse populations is essential for understanding transmission dynamics, assessing human disease risk and monitoring spatio-temporal trends and the impact of control interventions. Although an important epidemiological variable, identifying flies which carry transmissible(More)
Detection of trypanosomes that cause disease in human beings and livestock within their tsetse fly hosts is an essential component of vector and disease control programmes. Several molecular-based diagnostic tests have been developed for this purpose. Many of these tests, while sensitive, require analysis of trypanosome DNA extracted from single flies, or(More)
The rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent of heartwater, a potential zoonotic disease of ruminants transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma. The disease is distributed in nearly all of sub-Saharan Africa and some islands of the Caribbean, from where it threatens the American mainland. This report describes the development of(More)
A study was undertaken to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices about sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) among communities living in and around Serengeti National Park (SENAPA). Structured questionnaires were administered to a total of 1490 consenting participants. Of the respondents, 924 (62%) knew sleeping sickness, and 807 (87.3%)(More)