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We show that in melanoma cells oncogenic BRAF, acting through MEK and the transcription factor BRN2, downregulates the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A. Although PDE5A downregulation causes a small decrease in proliferation, its major impact is to stimulate a dramatic increase in melanoma cell invasion. This is because PDE5A downregulation leads to an(More)
Ras proteins are distributed in different types of plasma membrane microdomains and endomembranes. However, how microlocalization affects the signals generated by Ras and its subsequent biological outputs is largely unknown. We have approached this question by selectively targeting RasV12 to different cellular sublocalizations. We show here that(More)
Cell-type-specific signalling determines cell fate under physiological conditions, but it is increasingly apparent that also in cancer development the impact of any given oncogenic pathway on the individual cancer pathology is dependent on cell-lineage-specific molecular traits. For instance in colon and liver cancer canonical Wnt signalling produces(More)
Recent findings indicate that in addition to its location in the peripheral plasma membrane, H-Ras is found in endomembranes like the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. In these locations H-Ras is functional and can efficiently engage downstream effectors, but little is known about how its activation is regulated in these environments. Here we(More)
The function of the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ras-GRF/cdc25(Mn) is subject to tight regulatory processes. We have recently shown that the activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway by Ras-GRF is controlled by the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 through still unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that retaining Cdc42 in its GDP-bound state by overexpressing(More)
Approaches to prolong responses to BRAF targeting drugs in melanoma patients are challenged by phenotype heterogeneity. Melanomas of a "MITF-high" phenotype usually respond well to BRAF inhibitor therapy, but these melanomas also contain subpopulations of the de novo resistance "AXL-high" phenotype. > 50% of melanomas progress with enriched "AXL-high"(More)
Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-X(L), and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCepsilon(More)
Subcellular localization influences the nature of Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals by unknown mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that the microenvironment from which Ras signals emanate determines which substrates will be preferentially phosphorylated by the activated ERK1/2. We show that the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor(More)
BACKGROUND The mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway consisting of the kinases RAF, MEK, and ERK is central to cell proliferation and survival and is deregulated in more than 90% of melanomas. MEK inhibitors are currently trialled in the clinic, but despite efficient target inhibition, cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity limits their efficacy. (More)
The Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Ras-GRF/Cdc25(Mn) harbors a complex array of structural motifs that include a Dbl-homology (DH) domain, usually found in proteins that interact functionally with the Rho family GTPases, and the role of which is not yet fully understood. Here, we present evidence that Ras-GRF requires its DH domain to translocate to(More)