Imanol Arozarena

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We show that in melanoma cells oncogenic BRAF, acting through MEK and the transcription factor BRN2, downregulates the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A. Although PDE5A downregulation causes a small decrease in proliferation, its major impact is to stimulate a dramatic increase in melanoma cell invasion. This is because PDE5A downregulation leads to an(More)
Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) die because of chemoresistance. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, XIAP and Bcl-X(L), and triggers chemoresistance in SCLC cells. Here we show that these effects are mediated through the formation of a specific multiprotein complex comprising B-Raf, PKCepsilon(More)
Ras GTPases include the isoforms H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras. Despite their great biochemical and biological similarities, evidence is mounting suggesting that Ras proteins may not be functionally redundant. A widespread strategy for studying small GTPases is the utilization of dominant inhibitory mutants that specifically block the activation of their(More)
BACKGROUND The mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway consisting of the kinases RAF, MEK, and ERK is central to cell proliferation and survival and is deregulated in more than 90% of melanomas. MEK inhibitors are currently trialled in the clinic, but despite efficient target inhibition, cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity limits their efficacy. (More)
Once melanomas have progressed with acquired resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-targeted therapy, mutational heterogeneity presents a major challenge. We therefore examined the therapy phase before acquired resistance had developed and discovered the melanoma survival oncogene MITF as a driver of an early non-mutational and reversible(More)
Cell-type-specific signalling determines cell fate under physiological conditions, but it is increasingly apparent that also in cancer development the impact of any given oncogenic pathway on the individual cancer pathology is dependent on cell-lineage-specific molecular traits. For instance in colon and liver cancer canonical Wnt signalling produces(More)
Ras proteins are distributed in different types of plasma membrane microdomains and endomembranes. However, how microlocalization affects the signals generated by Ras and its subsequent biological outputs is largely unknown. We have approached this question by selectively targeting RasV12 to different cellular sublocalizations. We show here that(More)
The p38 family of mitogen-activated protein kinases is composed of several isoforms. Mxi2 is a splicing variant of p38alpha that harbors a unique carboxy-terminus. Here we show that this sole divergence results in remarkable differences between Mxi2 and p38alpha. Mxi2 is distinctively activated by stress stimuli and potently activated by mitogens. Mxi2(More)
Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of melanocytes, and the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is essential for the existence of melanocytes. MITF's relevance for this cell lineage is maintained in melanoma, where it is an important regulator of survival and balances melanoma cell proliferation with terminal differentiation (pigmentation).(More)
Recent findings indicate that in addition to its location in the peripheral plasma membrane, H-Ras is found in endomembranes like the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. In these locations H-Ras is functional and can efficiently engage downstream effectors, but little is known about how its activation is regulated in these environments. Here we(More)