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Noether's theorem is a fundamental result in physics stating that every symmetry of the dynamics implies a conservation law. It is, however, deficient in several respects: for one, it is not applicable to dynamics wherein the system interacts with an environment; furthermore, even in the case where the system is isolated, if the quantum state is mixed then(More)
A quantum protocol for secure transmission of data using qubits is presented. This protocol sends one qubit in a round-trip to transmit one bit of data. The protocol offers an improvement over the BB84 QKD protocol. BB84, in conjunction with one-time pad encryption, has been shown to be unconditionally secure. However its security relies on the assumption(More)
We consider error suppression schemes in which quantum information is encoded into the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian comprising a sum of commuting terms. Since such Hamiltonians are gapped, they are considered natural candidates for protection of quantum information and topological or adiabatic quantum computation. However, we prove that they cannot be(More)
We propose a quantum algorithm that emulates the action of an unknown unitary transformation on a given input state, using multiple copies of some unknown sample input states of the unitary and their corresponding output states. The algorithm does not assume any prior information about the unitary to be emulated, or the sample input states. To emulate the(More)
Let an EPR source which generates maximally entangled pairs be located so that it has distances L 1 and L 2 to two users. After taking into account various effects like loss of photons, deficiencies in the source and detectors, an entangled pair traveling through the channel may loose its perfect correlation due to errors in the channel. How the(More)
A two-layer quantum protocol for secure transmission of data using qubits is presented. The protocol is an improvement over the BB84 QKD protocol. BB84, in conjunction with the one-time pad algorithm, has been shown to be unconditionally secure. However it suffers from two drawbacks: (1) Its security relies on the assumption that Alice's qubit source is(More)
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