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Since the recovery of infectious RNA transcripts from full-length cDNA clones, alphavirus genome RNAs have been engineered to allow expression of heterologous RNAs and proteins. The highest levels of expression of heterologous products are achieved when the viral structural genes are replaced by the heterologous coding sequences. Such recombinant RNAs are(More)
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that include a number of important human and animal pathogens. The natural transmission cycle of alphaviruses requires their presence at high concentrations in the blood of amplification hosts for efficient infection of mosquito vectors. The high-titer viremia development implies multiple rounds of(More)
Infection of vertebrate cells with alphaviruses normally leads to prodigious expression of virus-encoded genes and a dramatic inhibition of host protein synthesis. Recombinant Sindbis viruses and replicons have been useful as vectors for high level foreign gene expression, but the cytopathic effects of viral replication have limited their use to transient(More)
The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using(More)
Infection of BHK cells by Sindbis virus leads to rapid inhibition of host cell protein synthesis and cytopathic effects (CPE). We have been studying these events to determine whether the expression of a specific viral gene is required and, in the present study, have focused our attention on the role of the structural proteins--the capsid protein and the two(More)
Sindbis virus (SINV) is one of almost 30 currently known alphaviruses. In infected cells, it produces only a few proteins that function in virus replication and interfere with the development of the antiviral response. One of the viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2, not only exhibits protease and RNA helicase activities that are directly involved in viral(More)
One incentive for developing the alphavirus Sindbis virus as a vector for the expression of heterologous proteins is the very high level of viral structural proteins that accumulates in infected cells. Although replacement of the structural protein genes by a heterologous gene should lead to an equivalent accumulation of the heterologous protein, the(More)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a reemerging virus that causes a severe and often fatal disease in equids and humans. In spite of a continuous public health threat, to date, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been developed for human use. Experimental vaccines demonstrate either poor efficiency or severe adverse effects. In this study, we(More)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a pathogenic alphavirus, which circulates in the Central, South, and North Americas, including the United States, and represents a significant public health threat. In recent years, strong progress has been made in understanding the structure of VEEV virions, but the mechanism of their formation has yet to be(More)
An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mediates translation initiation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) RNA. Studies have suggested that a portion of the N(pro) open reading frame (ORF) is required, although its exact function has not been defined. Here we show that a subgenomic (sg) BVDV RNA in which the NS3 ORF is preceded only by the 5'(More)