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BACKGROUND Particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse airway health effects; however, the underlying mechanism in disease initiation is still largely unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNAs) have been suggested to be important in maintaining the lung in a disease-free state through regulation of gene expression. Although many(More)
Increased exposure to air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been proposed as one mechanism to explain the rise in allergic disorders. However, the immunologic mechanisms by which DEP enhance allergic sensitization and asthma remain unclear. We hypothesized that DEP act as an adjuvant for immature dendritic cell (DC) maturation via its(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular(More)
Airway epithelial cells respond to certain environmental stresses by mounting a proinflammatory response, which is characterized by enhanced synthesis and release of the neutrophil chemotactic and activating factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level in part by the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB.(More)
Ozone, one of the most reactive oxidant gases to which humans are routinely exposed, induces inflammation in the lower airways. The airway epithelium is one of the first targets that inhaled ozone will encounter, but its role in airway inflammation is not well understood. Expression of inducible genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as(More)
Because of potential exposure both in the workplace and from ambient air, the known carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) is considered a priority hazardous air pollutant. BD and its 2-methyl analog, isoprene (ISO), are chemically similar but have very different toxicities, with ISO showing no significant carcinogenesis. Once released into the atmosphere, reactions(More)
Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression in human airway epithelial cells can be evoked by oxidative stress. In this study we examined signal transduction pathways activated by vanadyl sulfate (V(IV))-induced oxidative stress in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Both nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB(More)
Influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially during pandemics outbreaks. Emerging data indicate that phase II antioxidant enzyme pathways could play a role in virus-associated inflammation and immune clearance. While Nrf2-dependent gene expression is known to modify inflammation, a mechanistic role in viral(More)
Recent research of the metabolism and biological effects of arsenic has profoundly changed our understanding of the role of metabolism in modulation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of this metalloid. Historically, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono- and dimethylated species has been considered a major mechanism for detoxification of(More)
Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to increased incidences of various cancers, including cancer of the urinary bladder. Mechanisms by which iAs promotes cancer may include stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding through increased expression and/or phosphorylation of the AP-1 constituents. However, the role of(More)