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BACKGROUND Particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse airway health effects; however, the underlying mechanism in disease initiation is still largely unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNAs) have been suggested to be important in maintaining the lung in a disease-free state through regulation of gene expression. Although many(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular(More)
Because of potential exposure both in the workplace and from ambient air, the known carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) is considered a priority hazardous air pollutant. BD and its 2-methyl analog, isoprene (ISO), are chemically similar but have very different toxicities, with ISO showing no significant carcinogenesis. Once released into the atmosphere, reactions(More)
Ozone, one of the most reactive oxidant gases to which humans are routinely exposed, induces inflammation in the lower airways. The airway epithelium is one of the first targets that inhaled ozone will encounter, but its role in airway inflammation is not well understood. Expression of inducible genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as(More)
Recent research of the metabolism and biological effects of arsenic has profoundly changed our understanding of the role of metabolism in modulation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of this metalloid. Historically, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono- and dimethylated species has been considered a major mechanism for detoxification of(More)
Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to increased incidences of various cancers, including cancer of the urinary bladder. Mechanisms by which iAs promotes cancer may include stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding through increased expression and/or phosphorylation of the AP-1 constituents. However, the role of(More)
Increased exposure to air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been proposed as one mechanism to explain the rise in allergic disorders. However, the immunologic mechanisms by which DEP enhance allergic sensitization and asthma remain unclear. We hypothesized that DEP act as an adjuvant for immature dendritic cell (DC) maturation via its(More)
Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying O3-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of genomic response to environmental(More)
We have previously shown that exposure to combustion-derived metals rapidly (within 20 min) activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS. To study the mechanisms responsible for metal-induced activation of ERK, we examined the effect of(More)
The emergence of air-liquid interface (ALI) culturing of mammalian airway epithelium is a recent innovation for experimental modeling of airway epithelial development, function, and pathogenic mechanisms associated with infectious agent and irritant exposure. This construct provides an experimental platform for in vitro propagation, manipulation, and(More)