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BACKGROUND Particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse airway health effects; however, the underlying mechanism in disease initiation is still largely unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNAs) have been suggested to be important in maintaining the lung in a disease-free state through regulation of gene expression. Although many(More)
Recent research of the metabolism and biological effects of arsenic has profoundly changed our understanding of the role of metabolism in modulation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of this metalloid. Historically, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono- and dimethylated species has been considered a major mechanism for detoxification of(More)
Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to increased incidences of various cancers, including cancer of the urinary bladder. Mechanisms by which iAs promotes cancer may include stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding through increased expression and/or phosphorylation of the AP-1 constituents. However, the role of(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular(More)
Several factors, such as age and nutritional status, can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, which are also a major targets(More)
Metallic constituents contained in ambient particulate matter have been associated with adverse effects in a number of epidemiologic, in vitro, and in vivo studies. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a metallic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuel oil, which has been shown to induce a variety of proinflammatory responses in lung cells. We have examined(More)
BACKGROUND Drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is associated with increased risk for different types of cancer. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide can also be used to induce remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a success rate of approximately 80%. A comprehensive study examining the mechanisms and potential(More)
BACKGROUND Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent a human health risk as mice exposed by inhalation display pulmonary fibrosis. Production of IL-1β via inflammasome activation is a mechanism of MWCNT-induced acute inflammation and has been implicated in chronic fibrogenesis. Mice sensitized to allergens have elevated T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines,(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution contributes significantly to global increases in mortality, particularly within urban environments. Limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms underlying health effects resulting from exposure to pollutant mixtures similar to those occurring in ambient air. In order to clarify the mechanisms underlying exposure effects,(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. OBJECTIVE We developed a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoke alters nasal inflammatory and antiviral(More)