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BACKGROUND Particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse airway health effects; however, the underlying mechanism in disease initiation is still largely unknown. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs; small noncoding RNAs) have been suggested to be important in maintaining the lung in a disease-free state through regulation of gene expression. Although many(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular(More)
Recent research of the metabolism and biological effects of arsenic has profoundly changed our understanding of the role of metabolism in modulation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of this metalloid. Historically, the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenic to mono- and dimethylated species has been considered a major mechanism for detoxification of(More)
Increased exposure to air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been proposed as one mechanism to explain the rise in allergic disorders. However, the immunologic mechanisms by which DEP enhance allergic sensitization and asthma remain unclear. We hypothesized that DEP act as an adjuvant for immature dendritic cell (DC) maturation via its(More)
Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to increased incidences of various cancers, including cancer of the urinary bladder. Mechanisms by which iAs promotes cancer may include stimulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding through increased expression and/or phosphorylation of the AP-1 constituents. However, the role of(More)
Recent studies have advanced our knowledge about the signal transduction cascade involved in the activation of nuclear factor (NF) ␬ B, including the identification and characterization of I ␬ B kinases (IKKs). Although exposure to hydrogen perox-ide (H 2 O 2) in vitro can activate NF-␬ B, this response is not universal and depends on the cell type and(More)
Several factors, such as age and nutritional status, can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, which are also a major targets(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution contributes significantly to global increases in mortality, particularly within urban environments. Limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms underlying health effects resulting from exposure to pollutant mixtures similar to those occurring in ambient air. In order to clarify the mechanisms underlying exposure effects,(More)
BACKGROUND Drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is associated with increased risk for different types of cancer. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide can also be used to induce remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a success rate of approximately 80%. A comprehensive study examining the mechanisms and potential(More)
Metallic constituents contained in ambient particulate matter have been associated with adverse effects in a number of epidemiologic, in vitro, and in vivo studies. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a metallic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuel oil, which has been shown to induce a variety of proinflammatory responses in lung cells. We have examined(More)