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Endothelial dysfunction is associated with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model for type 2 diabetes, exhibit endothelial dysfunction. Rats also received a high-sodium diet (6% NaCl [wt/wt]) and chronic angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockade (10(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess and compare the effects of candesartan or lisinopril, or both, on blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in patients with microalbuminuria, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN Prospective, randomised, parallel group, double blind study with four week placebo run in period and 12 weeks' monotherapy with candesartan or(More)
Plasma concentrations of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were low or undetectable in 8 healthy subjects and 9 control patients without cardiac disease, and raised in 17 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Highest concentrations were measured in patients with severe CHF. High plasma ANP levels were also found in 2 patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients (N = 825) with type 2 diabetes and hypertension (mean seated systolic blood pressure [SBP] 130-159 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] 80-99 mmHg) were randomized (double blind) to 10(More)
Mechanisms controlling fluid volume were studied in alcohol preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) and alcohol avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats. Hypertonic sodium chloride solution (5%) given orally caused a higher dipsogenic response in AA rats than in the ANA's. One hour after ethanol loading (4.8 g/kg, by stomach tube), plasma renin activity of AA rats was(More)
BACKGROUND Rare mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) result in the monogenic hypertension form of Liddle's syndrome. We decided to screen for common variants in the ENaC beta and gamma subunits in patients with essential hypertension and to relate their occurrence to the activity of circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. METHODS(More)
AIMS To determine the effects of empagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) and markers of arterial stiffness and vascular resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from a phase III trial in patients with T2DM and hypertension receiving 12 weeks' empagliflozin and four phase III trials in(More)
AIMS Mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) are linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), characterized by risk of polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death during exercise. Arrhythmias are caused by gain-of-function defects in RyR2, but cellular arrhythmogenesis remains elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
The effect of acute moderate ethanol intoxication on renin-aldosterone axis was studied in four healthy humans in normal sodium and water balance. The subjects drank ethanol 1.2 g/kg body weight during 90 minutes. A dissociation between plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone took place; PRA increased (p less than 0.001) and aldosterone showed a(More)
It has been suggested that combined inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) may lower blood pressure more effectively than either treatment alone, independent of the degree of salt and volume status or the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. The effects of NEP inhibition in hypertension associated with(More)