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OBJECTIVE Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which is a novel technique for the manipulation of cortical oscillations, can generate subjective visual sensations (phosphenes). In this work, we computationally investigate the current that reaches the eyes from tACS electrodes in order to show that phosphenes induced by tACS are retinal in(More)
An extensive study on specific absorption rate (SAR) covering 720 simulations and 15 voxel models (18-105 kg) has been performed by applying the parallel finite-difference time-domain method. High-resolution whole-body models have been irradiated with plane waves from 300 MHz to 5 GHz by applying various incoming directions and polarizations. Detailed(More)
BACKGROUND The sources of inter-subject variability in the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) remain unknown. One potential source of variations is the brain's electric field, which varies according to each individual's anatomical features. OBJECTIVE We employed an approach that combines imaging and computational modeling to(More)
The performance of perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions is studied for finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) specific absorption rate (SAR) assessment, using convolutional PML (CPML) implementation of PML. This is done by investigating the variation of SAR values when the amount of free-space layers between the studied object and PML(More)
From extremely low frequencies to intermediate frequencies, the magnitude of induced electric field inside the human body is used as the metric for human protection. The induced electric field inside the body can be computed using anatomically realistic voxel models and numerical methods such as the finite-difference or finite-element methods. The computed(More)
Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of(More)
This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of specific absorption rate (SAR) values in the head under plane-wave exposure from 1 to 10 GHz using a resolution of 0.5 mm in adult male and female voxel models. Temperature rise due to the power absorption is calculated by the bioheat equation using a multigrid method solver. The(More)
In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the distribution of the induced electric field, and the affected brain areas, depends on the position of the stimulation coil and the individual geometry of the head and brain. The distribution of the induced electric field in realistic anatomies can be modelled using computational methods. However, existing(More)
According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the(More)
The electric field produced in the brain is the main physical agent of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Inter-subject variations in the electric fields may help to explain the variability in the effects of tDCS. Here, we use multiple-subject analysis to study the strength and variability of the group-level electric fields in the standard(More)