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OBJECTIVE Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which is a novel technique for the manipulation of cortical oscillations, can generate subjective visual sensations (phosphenes). In this work, we computationally investigate the current that reaches the eyes from tACS electrodes in order to show that phosphenes induced by tACS are retinal in(More)
The effect of chronic treatment with nicotine on striatal dopamine metabolism was studied in mice by measuring the striatal concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). (-)-Nicotine was administered for 7 days using subcutaneously implanted nicotine releasing(More)
1. The effect of ambient temperature on the nicotine-induced (0.3, 0.5 or 0.8 mg kg(-1) s.c.) changes of the striatal concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) was studied in freely-moving rats by in vivo microdialysis. 2. At the ambient temperature of 30 - 33 degrees C, but not at(More)
Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of(More)
The effect of chronic oral administration of nicotine on the circadian rhythm of striatal dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was studied in mice. Mice receiving nicotine in their drinking water and control mice drinking tap water were killed at 05:00, 11:00, 15:00 or 21:00 hours on the 50th day of chronic administration. The plasma concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND The sources of inter-subject variability in the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) remain unknown. One potential source of variations is the brain's electric field, which varies according to each individual's anatomical features. OBJECTIVE We employed an approach that combines imaging and computational modeling to(More)
In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the distribution of the induced electric field, and the affected brain areas, depends on the position of the stimulation coil and the individual geometry of the head and brain. The distribution of the induced electric field in realistic anatomies can be modelled using computational methods. However, existing(More)
From extremely low frequencies to intermediate frequencies, the magnitude of induced electric field inside the human body is used as the metric for human protection. The induced electric field inside the body can be computed using anatomically realistic voxel models and numerical methods such as the finite-difference or finite-element methods. The computed(More)
OBJECTIVE Established biophysical neurone models have achieved limited success in reproducing electrophysiological responses to non-invasive stimulation of the human nervous system. This is related to our insufficient knowledge of the induced electric currents inside the human body. Despite the numerous research and clinical applications of non-invasive(More)