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Among a panel of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors investigated, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) evolved as a potent and non-toxic candidate drug for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an alpha-motoneurone disorder caused by insufficient survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels. SAHA increased SMN levels at low micromolar(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a common neuromuscular disorder, is caused by homozygous absence of the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1), while the disease severity is mainly influenced by the number of SMN2 gene copies. This correlation is not absolute, suggesting the existence of yet unknown factors modulating disease progression. We demonstrate that(More)
Excitotoxic brain lesions, such as stroke and epilepsy, lead to increasing destruction of neurons hours after the insult. The deadly cascade of events involves detrimental actions by free radicals and the activation of proapoptotic transcription factors, which finally result in neuronal destruction. Here, we provide direct evidence that the nutritionally(More)
Current treatment modalities for malignant gliomas do not allow long-term survival. Here, we identify suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC), as an effective experimental anti-glioma agent. Administration of SAHA to various glioma cell lines obtained from human, rat and mouse inhibited tumour cell growth in a(More)
Neurodegeneration and brain edema are hallmarks of human malignant brain tumors. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the glutamate transporter xCT (X(c-) system, encoded by SLC7a11) in vivo leads to abrogated neurodegeneration, attenuated perifocal edema and prolonged survival. These results show a crucial role for xCT in(More)
Primary neuronal destruction in the central nervous system triggers rapid changes in glial morphology and function, after which activated glial cells contribute to secondary neuronal changes. Here we show that, after entorhinal cortex lesion, activation of microglia, but not other glial cells, leads to massive secondary dendritic changes of deafferentiated(More)
Stem and progenitor cells (PCs) of various lineages have become attractive vehicles to improve therapeutic gene delivery to cancers, notably glioblastoma. Here we report that adult human and murine haematopoietic PCs display a tropism for intracerebral gliomas but not for normal brain tissue in mice. Organotypic hippocampal slice culture and spheroid(More)
Despite continuing debates around cytoreductive surgery in malignant gliomas, there is broad consensus that increased extent of tumor reduction improves overall survival. However, maximization of the extent of tumor resection is hampered by difficulty in intraoperative discrimination between normal and pathological tissue. In this context, two established(More)
During the past six years numerous studies identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as candidate drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Two major neuroprotective mechanisms of HDAC inhibitors have been identified, namely the transcriptional activation of disease-modifying genes and the correction of perturbations in histone(More)
The trace element selenium and selenocysteine-carrying selenoproteins play a pivotal role in the brain. Beside the essential function during development and maintenance of brain action, selenium has also been associated with several neurological and neuro-oncological conditions. Reliable supply of selenium is important since selenium compounds can affect(More)