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Estimates of disease burden and data on the sources of invasive postpartum group A streptococcus (GAS) infections will help guide public health action. Active, population-based surveillance was conducted in 9 regions from 1995 through 2000. A case of GAS infection was defined as isolation of GAS from a sterile site in a resident of a surveillance area who(More)
BACKGROUND Gene-based vaccination using prime/boost regimens protects animals and humans against malaria, inducing cell-mediated responses that in animal models target liver stage malaria parasites. We tested a DNA prime/adenovirus boost malaria vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial with controlled human malaria infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The(More)
BACKGROUND Immunization with genetically engineered, attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) that arrest during liver infection confers sterile protection in mouse malaria models. A first generation Plasmodium falciparum GAP (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP) was previously generated by deletion of two pre-erythrocytic stage-expressed genes (P52 and P36) in the NF54 strain.(More)
OBJECTIVE Sore throat is a common complaint in children and adolescents. With increasing antimicrobial resistance because of antimicrobial overuse, accurate diagnosis is imperative. Appropriate management of acute pharyngitis depends on proper use and interpretation of clinical findings, rapid antigen-detection tests, and throat cultures. We surveyed(More)
BACKGROUND A protective malaria vaccine will likely need to elicit both cell-mediated and antibody responses. As adenovirus vaccine vectors induce both these responses in humans, a Phase 1/2a clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an adenovirus serotype 5-vectored malaria vaccine against sporozoite challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
BACKGROUND Fifteen volunteers were immunized with three doses of plasmid DNA encoding P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and boosted with human adenovirus-5 (Ad) expressing the same antigens (DNA/Ad). Four volunteers (27%) demonstrated sterile immunity to controlled human malaria infection and, overall,(More)
BACKGROUND In a prior study, a DNA prime / adenovirus boost vaccine (DNA/Ad) expressing P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) (NMRC-M3V-D/Ad-PfCA Vaccine) induced 27% protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). To investigate the contribution of DNA priming, we tested the efficacy of adenovirus(More)
BACKGROUND Models of immunity to malaria indicate the importance of CD8+ T cell responses for targeting intrahepatic stages and antibodies for targeting sporozoite and blood stages. We designed a multistage adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-vectored Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine, aiming to induce both types of responses in humans, that was tested for safety and(More)
Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen that is expressed by sporozoite, liver and blood stage parasites. Since CD8+ T cell responses have been implicated in protection against pre-erythrocytic stage malaria, this study was designed to identify MHC class I-restricted epitopes within AMA1. A(More)
Studies of influenza-specific immune responses in humans have largely assessed systemic responses involving serum Ab and peripheral blood T cell responses. However, recent evidence indicates that tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play an important role in local murine intrapulmonary immunity. Rhesus monkeys were pulmonary exposed to 2009 pandemic H1N1(More)