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This analysis examined how unmeasured confounding affects estimates of the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Data were analyzed from a prospective cohort study of 1,122 female sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in Alabama (1992-1995), wherein participants were evaluated for sexually transmitted infections at(More)
BACKGROUND Polymorphisms in chemokine (C-C motif) receptors 2 and 5 genes (CCR2 and CCR5) have been associated with HIV-1 infection and disease progression. We investigated the impact of CCR2-CCR5 haplotypes on HIV-1 viral load (VL) and heterosexual transmission in an African cohort. Between 1995 and 2006, cohabiting Zambian couples discordant for HIV-1(More)
Differences in immune control of HIV-1 infection are often attributable to the highly variable HLA class I molecules that present viral epitopes to CTL. In our immunogenetic analyses of 429 HIV-1 discordant Zambian couples (infected index partners paired with cohabiting seronegative partners), several HLA class I variants in index partners were associated(More)
New data regarding a positive association between smoking and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), especially the mucinous tumor type, has started to emerge. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between different measures of smoking exposures and subtypes of EOC in a large cohort of women from 10 European countries. The European(More)
BACKGROUND Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest independent risk factors for breast cancer. It is believed that one third of breast cancers are derived from breasts with more than 50% density. Mammographic density is affected by age, BMI, parity, and genetic predisposition. It is also greatly influenced by hormonal and growth factor(More)
BACKGROUND During untreated, chronic HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) is a relatively stable quantitative trait that has clinical and epidemiological implications. Immunogenetic research has established various human genetic factors, especially human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants, as independent determinants of VL set-point. (More)
SAS maintains a wealth of information about the active SAS session, including information on libraries, tables, files and system options; this information is contained in the Dictionary Tables. Understanding and using these tables will help you build interactive and dynamic applications. Unfortunately, Dictionary Tables are often considered an 'Advanced'(More)
BACKGROUND Acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is mediated by a combination of characteristics of the infectious and the susceptible member of a transmission pair, including human behavioral and genetic factors, as well as viral fitness and tropism. Here we report on the impact of established and potential new HLA class I(More)
OBJECTIVE We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. DESIGN Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. METHODS Rates(More)
A SAS program was designed to monitor HIV seroconversion (i.e., the transition from HIV seronegative to HIV seropositive status, indicating a new infection) in a prospective cohort of HIV discordant (one partner HIV+, the other HIV-) cohabiting couples in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples are followed up every three months. The investigator was interested in(More)