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T he purpose of this report is to provide revised standards and guidelines for the exercise testing and training of individuals who are free from clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and those with known cardiovascular disease. These guidelines are intended for physicians, nurses, exercise physiologists, specialists, technologists, and other(More)
BACKGROUND Although monitoring the clinical status of patients with heart failure rests at the core of clinical medicine, the ability of different techniques to reflect clinical change has not been evaluated. This study sought to describe changes in various measures of disease status associated with gradations of clinical change. METHODS A prospective,(More)
BACKGROUND Galectin-3 is a soluble ß-galactoside-binding lectin released by activated cardiac macrophages. Elevated levels of galectin-3 have been found to be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. We evaluated the association between galectin-3 and long-term clinical outcomes in ambulatory heart failure patients enrolled in the(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this statement is to summarize data on stroke risk factors that are unique to and more common in women than men and to expand on the data provided in prior stroke guidelines and cardiovascular prevention guidelines for women. This guideline focuses on the risk factors unique to women, such as reproductive factors, and those that are more(More)
BACKGROUND Underrepresentation of women in heart failure clinical trials has limited conclusions regarding the effect of various management strategies on survival in women with heart failure and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS MERIT-HF (Metoprolol Extended-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure) was(More)
CONTEXT Little randomized evidence is available to guide the in-hospital management of patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. Although intravenous inotropic therapy usually produces beneficial hemodynamic effects and is labeled for use in the care of such patients, the effect of such therapy on intermediate-term clinical outcomes is(More)
CONTEXT Guidelines recommend that exercise training be considered for medically stable outpatients with heart failure. Previous studies have not had adequate statistical power to measure the effects of exercise training on clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy and safety of exercise training among patients with heart failure. DESIGN,(More)
BACKGROUND Heart failure (HF) is an important contributor to both the burden and cost of national healthcare expenditures, with more older Americans hospitalized for HF than for any other medical condition. With the aging of the population, the impact of HF is expected to increase substantially. METHODS AND RESULTS We estimated future costs of HF by(More)