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It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
Neuropathic pain is a clinical manifestation of nerve injury difficult to treat even with potent analgesic compounds. Here, we used different lines of genetically modified mice to clarify the role played by CB(2) cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of the central immune responses leading to the development of neuropathic pain. CB(2) knock-out mice and(More)
The molecular mechanisms contributing to the normal age-related decline of cognitive functions or to pathological learning and memory impairment are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that young mice (6-7 weeks) with a genetic deletion of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor performed as well as WT mice, or often better, in a number of learning and memory(More)
GABA(A) receptors are the major ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. The endocannabinoid system is a lipid signaling network that modulates different brain functions. Here we show a direct molecular interaction between the two systems. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) potentiates GABA(A) receptors at low concentrations of(More)
Nerve injuries often lead to neuropathic pain syndrome. The mechanisms contributing to this syndrome involve local inflammatory responses, activation of glia cells, and changes in the plasticity of neuronal nociceptive pathways. Cannabinoid CB(2) receptors contribute to the local containment of neuropathic pain by modulating glial activation in response to(More)
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental evidence indicates that the endogenous opioid system influences stress responses as well as reinforces effects of addictive drugs. Because stress is an important factor contributing to drug dependence and relapse, we have now studied ethanol preference in enkephalin- and beta-endorphin-deficient mice under baseline conditions and(More)
BACKGROUND Smad-interacting protein 1 (also named Zeb2 and Zfhx1b) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in neuronal development and, when mutated, causes Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS). A corresponding mouse model carrying a heterozygous Zeb2 deletion was comprehensively analysed in the German Mouse Clinic. The most prominent phenotype was(More)
Evidence suggests that the kappa-opioid receptor (KOP-r) system plays an important role in cocaine addiction. Indeed, cocaine induces endogenous KOP activity, which is a mechanism that opposes alterations in behaviour and brain function resulting from repeated cocaine use. In this study, we have examined the influence of deletion of preprodynorphin (ppDYN)(More)
Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have(More)