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It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic(More)
Neuropathic pain is a clinical manifestation of nerve injury difficult to treat even with potent analgesic compounds. Here, we used different lines of genetically modified mice to clarify the role played by CB(2) cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of the central immune responses leading to the development of neuropathic pain. CB(2) knock-out mice and(More)
GABA(A) receptors are the major ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. The endocannabinoid system is a lipid signaling network that modulates different brain functions. Here we show a direct molecular interaction between the two systems. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) potentiates GABA(A) receptors at low concentrations of(More)
The molecular mechanisms contributing to the normal age-related decline of cognitive functions or to pathological learning and memory impairment are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that young mice (6-7 weeks) with a genetic deletion of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor performed as well as WT mice, or often better, in a number of learning and memory(More)
Maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were pretreated with 0.001 g dm−3 S-methylmethionine (SMM) in the nutrient solution for 24 h and then subjected to chilling (6 °C for 2, 4, 6, 10, and 24 h). Cold stress significantly decreased the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence ratio, Fv/Fm) during the whole experiment but(More)
Aging is a major risk factor for a large number of disorders and functional impairments. Therapeutic targeting of the aging process may therefore represent an innovative strategy in the quest for novel and broadly effective treatments against age-related diseases. The recent report of lifespan extension in mice treated with the FDA-approved mTOR inhibitor(More)
Nerve injuries often lead to neuropathic pain syndrome. The mechanisms contributing to this syndrome involve local inflammatory responses, activation of glia cells, and changes in the plasticity of neuronal nociceptive pathways. Cannabinoid CB(2) receptors contribute to the local containment of neuropathic pain by modulating glial activation in response to(More)
The psychoactive cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. and the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids are nonselective natural ligands for cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) and CB(2) receptors. Although the CB(1) receptor is responsible for the psychomodulatory effects, activation of the CB(2) receptor is a potential therapeutic strategy for the(More)
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental evidence indicates that the endogenous opioid system influences stress responses as well as reinforces effects of addictive drugs. Because stress is an important factor contributing to drug dependence and relapse, we have now studied ethanol preference in enkephalin- and beta-endorphin-deficient mice under baseline conditions and(More)