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The preserved speech variant is the milder form of Rett syndrome: affected girls show the same stages of this condition and by the second half of the first decade are making slow progress in manual and verbal abilities. They walk without help, and may be able to make simple drawings and write a few words. Most of them can speak in sentences. Autistic(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder almost exclusively affecting females and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Most patients affected by classic RTT and a smaller percentage of patients with the milder form 'preserved speech variant' have either point mutations or deletions/duplications in the MECP2 gene.(More)
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding for the methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2. Here, we report the identification of FOXG1-truncating mutations in two patients affected by the congenital variant of Rett syndrome. FOXG1 encodes a brain-specific transcriptional repressor that is essential for(More)
Mutations in the MECP2 gene cause the severe neurodevelopmental disorder called Rett syndrome. Preliminary evidence suggests that MECP2 may be involved in a broader phenotype than classical Rett syndrome including preserved speech variants (PSV). Here we report clinical and mutation analysis of 18 PSV patients. Ten of them had a MECP2 mutation (55%). The(More)
Mutations in MECP2 gene account for approximately 80% of cases of Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked severe developmental disorder affecting young girls, as well as for most cases of Preserved Speech Variant (PSV), a mild RTT variant in which autistic behavior is common. The aim of this study is to determine whether MECP2 mutations are responsible for PSV(More)
We present here a unique case of a 14-year-old female with autism and some features similar to Rett syndrome (RTT). Genetic analysis demonstrated a large deletion of chromosome 2q instead of a MECP2 mutation. Like a Rett patient, she is dyspraxic and shows frequent hand-washing stereotypic activities, hyperpnea, and bruxism. Like a preserved speech variant(More)
Autism and Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disorder with autistic behavior, are classified as separate disorders on clinical and etiological ground. Rett syndrome is a monogenic X-linked dominant condition due to de novo mutations in the MECP2 gene, whereas autism is a neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorder with complex genetic basis. Maternally(More)
ACSL4 is a gene involved in non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation. It encodes for a ubiquitous protein that adds coenzyme A to long-chain fatty acids, with a high substrate preference for arachidonic acid. It presents also a brain-specific isoform deriving from an alternative splicing and containing 41 additional N-terminal amino acids. To start to(More)
This review focuses on the 19 identified genes involved in X-linked "non-syndromic" mental retardation (MR) and defines the signaling pathways in which they are involved, focusing on emerging common mechanisms. The majority of proteins are involved in three distinct pathways: (1) Rho GTPases pathway modulating neuronal differentiation and synaptic(More)
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