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During tool-mediated interaction with everyday objects, we experience kinesthetic forces and tactile sensations in the form of vibration and skin deformation at the fingerpad. Fingerpad skin deformation is caused by forces applied tangentially and normally to the fingerpad skin, resulting in tangential and normal skin displacement. We designed a device to(More)
Isometric reaching, in which the arm remains stationary and the user controls a virtual cursor via force input, is a motor task that has not been thoroughly compared to real reaching. In this study, we ask if isometric adaptation to a kinematic perturbation is similar to adaptation in movement, and if the type of isometric mapping (position or velocity(More)
The stiffness of the environment with which we come in contact is the local derivative of a force field. The boundary of an elastic field is a singular region where local stiffness is ill-defined. We found that subjects interacting with delayed force fields tend to underestimate stiffness if they do not move across the boundary. In contrast, they tend to(More)
We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such a field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without(More)
During interaction with robotic manipulanda, the human brain constructs internal representations of the environment imposed by the robotic device. These representations (i) provide cognitive interpretation of the interfaced environment and (ii) generate motor commands for future interaction with the imposed environment. Interestingly, cognitive and motor(More)
In the Turing test, a computer model is deemed to " think intelligently " if it can generate answers that are not distinguishable from those of a human. This test is limited to the linguistic aspects of machine intelligence. A salient function of the brain is the control of movement, with the human hand movement being a sophisticated demonstration of this(More)
BACKGROUND Robot-assisted surgery is widely adopted for many procedures but has not realized its full potential to date. Based on human motor control theories, the authors hypothesized that the dynamics of the master manipulators impose challenges on the motor system of the user and may impair performance and slow down learning. Although studies have shown(More)
Proximal and distal muscles are different in size, maximum force, mechanical action, and neuromuscular control. In the current study we explore the perception of delayed stiffness when probing is executed using movement of different joints. We found a proximodistal gradient in the amount of underestimation of delayed stiffness in the transition between(More)
In the Turing test, a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are not distinguishable from those of a human. However, this test is limited to the linguistic aspects of machine intelligence. A salient function of the brain is the control of movement, and the movement of the human hand is a sophisticated demonstration(More)
In the Turing test a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are indistinguishable from those of a human. We developed an analogous Turing-like handshake test to determine if a machine can produce similarly indistinguishable movements. The test is administered through a telerobotic system in which an interrogator(More)