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Pyridostigmine, a carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, is routinely employed in the treatment of the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. Pyridostigmine is also recommended by most Western armies for use as pretreatment under threat of chemical warfare, because of its protective effect against organophosphate poisoning. Because of this drug's(More)
In humans, only a small fraction (2-12%) of a sperm population can respond by chemoattraction to follicular factors. This recent finding led to the hypothesis that chemotaxis provides a mechanism for selective recruitment of functionally mature spermatozoa (i.e., of capacitated spermatozoa, which possess the potential to undergo the acrosome reaction and(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of multiple gestation after therapy for infertility is especially high among women in whom ovulation is induced with gonadotropins. Whether the number of high-order multiple pregnancies (those with three or more fetuses) can be reduced is not known. METHODS We analyzed data on 3347 consecutive treatment cycles in 1494 infertile(More)
The acrosome reaction (AR) - an essential step in mammalian fertilization - can occur, according to the consensus, only in capacitated spermatozoa. In apparent contrast, recent reports have demonstrated that human spermatozoa incubated in vitro in an albumin-free medium and therefore believed to be non-capacitated, do undergo the AR. With the aim of(More)
BACKGROUND Human sperm chemotaxis to pre-ovulatory follicular fluid is well established in vitro. However, it is not known whether the female's oocyte-cumulus complex secretes sperm chemoattractants subsequent to ovulation (for enabling sperm chemotaxis within the Fallopian tube) and, if so, which of these cell types--the oocyte or the cumulus oophorus--is(More)
Transcervical balloon tuboplasty represents a noninvasive technique to treat proximal tubal occlusion. In a multicenter study, 77 women with confirmed bilateral proximal tubal occlusion underwent the procedure. In 71 patients (92%), at least one proximally obstructed fallopian tube was recanalized. Concomitant distal bilateral tubal occlusions were(More)
The clinical impact of PGD was evaluated through the analysis of the reproductive outcome before and after PGD in the same group of poor prognosis IVF patients, undergoing PGD for chromosomal abnormalities. Based on a series of 2359 PGD cycles, resulting in the establishment of 498 chromosomal abnormality-free clinical pregnancies, the reproductive history(More)
Exponential growth in genomics has led to public and private initiatives worldwide that have dramatically increased the number of procreative couples who are aware of their ability to transmit genetic disorders to their future children. Understanding how couples process the meaning of being genetically at-risk for their procreative life lags far behind the(More)
Human spermatozoa accumulate in vitro in diluted follicular fluids obtained from follicles from which the eggs have been fertilized. Using capillary assays under a variety of experimental conditions (ascending or descending gradients of follicular fluid, or no gradient at all) and microscopic assays in which individual spermatozoa could be followed, we(More)