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We propose a mathematical model to analyze the evolution of canalization for a trait under stabilizing selection, where each individual in the population is randomly exposed to different environmental conditions, independently of its genotype. Without canalization, our trait (primary phenotype) is affected by both genetic variation and environmental(More)
The paper provides an explanation for altruistic behavior based on the matching and learning technology in the population. In a in®nite structured population, in which individuals meet and interact with their neighbors, individuals learn by imitating their more successful neighbors. We ask which strategies are robust against invasion of mutants: A strategy(More)
Gregarious behavior of potential prey was explained by Hamilton (1971) on the basis of risk-sharing: The probability of being picked up by a predator is small when one makes part of a large aggregate of prey. This argument holds only if the predator chooses its victims at random. It is not the case for herds of evasive prey in the open, where prey's(More)
Long-term co-evolution of male's sexual extravagance and female's preference for it is studied. Fisher's "Sexy Son" principle is checked against Zahavi's Handicap Principle. It is shown that although both principles are equally likely to explain this sort of co-evolution in the short run, only the second one allows for a long-term evolutionarily stable(More)