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Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the(More)
piRNAs silence transposons during germline development. In Drosophila, transcripts from heterochromatic clusters are processed into primary piRNAs in the perinuclear nuage. The nuclear DEAD box protein UAP56 has been previously implicated in mRNA splicing and export, whereas the DEAD box protein Vasa has an established role in piRNA production and localizes(More)
oskar mRNA localization to the posterior of the Drosophila oocyte defines where the abdomen and germ cells form in the embryo. Although this localization requires microtubules and the plus end-directed motor, kinesin, its mechanism is controversial and has been proposed to involve active transport to the posterior, diffusion and trapping, or exclusion from(More)
Intracellular mRNA localization directs protein synthesis to particular subcellular domains to establish embryonic polarity in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior. After fertilization, translation of this RNA produces a Bcd protein gradient that determines anterior cell fates [1] and [2]. Analysis(More)
Drosophila gurken mRNA is localized by dynein-mediated transport to a crescent near the oocyte nucleus, thus targeting the TGFalpha signal and forming the primary embryonic axes. Here, we show that gurken and the I factor, a non-LTR retrotransposon, share a small consensus RNA stem loop of defined secondary structure, which forms a conserved signal for(More)
Localized mRNA provides spatial and temporal protein expression essential to cell development and physiology. To explore the mechanisms involved, considerable effort has been spent in establishing new and improved methods for visualizing mRNA. Here, we discuss how these techniques have extended our understanding of intracellular mRNA localization in a(More)
Cytoskeletal organization is central to establishing cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including during messenger ribonucleic acid sorting in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes by microtubule (MT)-dependent molecular motors. However, MT organization and dynamics remain controversial in the oocyte. In this paper, we use rapid multichannel live-cell(More)
Asymmetric mRNA localization targets proteins to their cytoplasmic site of function. We have elucidated the mechanism of apical localization of wingless and pair-rule transcripts in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo by directly visualizing intermediates along the entire path of transcript movement. After release from their site of transcription, mRNAs(More)
The peripheral cytoplasm (periplasm) of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo is subdivided into apical and basal compartments by a layer of nuclei. We have demonstrated three classes of periplasmic transcript localization: apical, basal, and unlocalized (apical and basal), each of which depends on 3' sequences. We define 3' apical localization signals within(More)
When some genes are silenced, their positions within the nucleus can change dramatically [1] [2]. It is unclear, however, whether genes move to new positions when they are activated [3]. The chromosomes within the polarized nuclei of the fruit fly Drosophila have a well-characterized apical-basal orientation (the Rabl configuration [4]). Using a(More)