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piRNAs silence transposons during germline development. In Drosophila, transcripts from heterochromatic clusters are processed into primary piRNAs in the perinuclear nuage. The nuclear DEAD box protein UAP56 has been previously implicated in mRNA splicing and export, whereas the DEAD box protein Vasa has an established role in piRNA production and localizes(More)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the(More)
Cytoskeletal organization is central to establishing cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including during messenger ribonucleic acid sorting in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes by microtubule (MT)-dependent molecular motors. However, MT organization and dynamics remain controversial in the oocyte. In this paper, we use rapid multichannel live-cell(More)
Asymmetric mRNA localization targets proteins to their cytoplasmic site of function. We have elucidated the mechanism of apical localization of wingless and pair-rule transcripts in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo by directly visualizing intermediates along the entire path of transcript movement. After release from their site of transcription, mRNAs(More)
oskar mRNA localization to the posterior of the Drosophila oocyte defines where the abdomen and germ cells form in the embryo. Although this localization requires microtubules and the plus end-directed motor, kinesin, its mechanism is controversial and has been proposed to involve active transport to the posterior, diffusion and trapping, or exclusion from(More)
In Drosophila oocytes, dorso-anterior transport of gurken mRNA requires both the Dynein motor and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) Squid. We show that gurken transcripts are transported directly on microtubules by Dynein in nonmembranous electron-dense transport particles that also contain Squid and the transport cofactors Egalitarian and(More)
Intracellular mRNA localization directs protein synthesis to particular subcellular domains to establish embryonic polarity in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila, bicoid (bcd) mRNA is prelocalized at the oocyte anterior. After fertilization, translation of this RNA produces a Bcd protein gradient that determines anterior cell fates [1] and [2]. Analysis(More)
Localized mRNA provides spatial and temporal protein expression essential to cell development and physiology. To explore the mechanisms involved, considerable effort has been spent in establishing new and improved methods for visualizing mRNA. Here, we discuss how these techniques have extended our understanding of intracellular mRNA localization in a(More)
In Drosophila, the body axes are specified during oogenesis through interactions between the germline and the overlying somatic follicle cells [1-5]. A Gurken/TGF-alpha signal from the oocyte to the adjacent follicle cells assigns them a posterior identity [6, 7]. These posterior cells then signal back to the oocyte, thereby inducing the repolarization of(More)
Fluorescence imaging of dynamical processes in live cells often results in a low signal-to-noise ratio. We present a novel feature-preserving non-local means approach to denoise such images to improve feature recovery and particle detection. The commonly used non-local means filter is not optimal for noisy biological images containing small features of(More)